Gm-C Filter Synthesis Based on LC Prototypes

  • Vančo LitovskiEmail author
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 596)


Two main problems are encountered when high frequency integrated analog filters are to be synthesized: the limitations of the operational amplifiers and the properties of the integrated resistor. The gain of the operational amplifier strongly depends on the frequency so deteriorating the properties of the overall system.


  1. 1.
    Haobijam G, Palathinkal RP (2014) Design and analysis of spiral inductors. Springer India, New DelhiCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tsividis YP, Voorman JO (1993) Integrated continuous-time filters: principles, design, and applications. IEEE, Piscataway, NJGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lawanwisut S, Siripruchyanun M (2012) An electronically controllable active-only current-mode floating inductance simulator. In: Proceedings of the 35th international conference on telecommunications and signal processing (TSP), Prague, Czech Republic, pp 386–389Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tellegen BDH (1948) The gyrator, a new electric network element. Philips Res Rep 3:81–101MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Uzunov IS (2008) Theoretical model of ungrounded inductance realized with two gyrators. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst-II: Express Briefs 55(10):981–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sanchez-Sinencio E, Silva-Martinez J (2000) CMOS transconductance amplifiers, architectures and active filters: a tutorial. IEE Proc Circuits Devices Syst 147(1):3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Santos MM, Bertemes-Filho P, Vincence VC (2012) CMOS transconductance amplifier types for low power electrical impedance spectroscopy. XXIII Congresso Brasileiro em Engenharia Biomédica – XXIII CBEB:1382–1386Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zverev AI (2005) Handbook of Filter Synthesis. Wiley-Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Elektronski FakultetNišSerbia

Personalised recommendations