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Active RC Cascade Circuit Synthesis

  • Vančo LitovskiEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 596)

Abstract

The term active is used to denote the presence of electronic operational amplifiers in the filter’s structure. That allows elimination of the need for inductors and transformers. The term active is used to denote the presence of electronic operational amplifiers in the filter’s structure. That allows elimination of the need for inductors and transformers. In addition, realization of the filter in a form of cascaded cells (of active electronic circuits) which does not load each other is enabled which eliminates the numerical problems encountered in passive cascade realization. To that purpose a second order function named biquad is introduced. To create a cascade of biquads, however, one has to solve the “pole-zero pairing” and the “order of extraction” problem. In addition, most of the cells (physical realizations of the biquads) have variants. In that way the number of cell types and their order in the cascade becomes enormous if high order filters are to be synthesized. In this chapter we will recommend an exhaustive list of types of cells encompassing every type of transmission zero and corresponding pair (or single) of poles. We will also recommend order of extraction leading to reduced noise and nonlinear distortions which are specifics of the active technology. A short study of the influence of the imperfection (limited gain) of the operational amplifier to the frequency response will be given.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Elektronski FakultetNišSerbia

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