Advertisement

Thermally Assisted Ductile Mode Cutting

  • Kiu LiuEmail author
  • Hao Wang
  • Xinquan Zhang
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing book series (SSAM)

Abstract

The growing necessity for advanced manufacturing technologies brings forth initiatives to incorporate thermal effects in micromachining of difficult-to-machine brittle material. While conventional heating methods exist in the macroform and are infeasible for micro-cutting applications, the fundamental concepts of heating are miniaturized to enable ductile mode micro-cutting of brittle single crystals. In general, ductile–brittle transition of these hard materials undergoes a significant improvement with thermal assistance, but the fundamental cause is material specific and could be attributed to the thermal softening effect, phase transition, and slip system activation. In addition, several aspects of the most promising technological advancements in thermally assisted machining, micro-laser assisted machining, are discussed in relation to machining conditions and tool wear. Temperature measurement techniques are also covered with the emphasis on its importance in ensuring proper thermal control of the machining system.

References

  1. 1.
    Ezugwu EO (2005) Key improvements in the machining of difficult-to-cut aerospace superalloys. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 45:1353–1367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sun S, Brandt M, Dargusch MS (2010) Thermally enhanced machining of hard-to machine materials—a review. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 50:663–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pramanik A (2014) Problems and solutions in machining of titanium alloys. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 70:919–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ding H, Ibrahim R, Cheng K, Chen SJ (2010) Experimental study on machinability improvement of hardened tool steel using two dimensional vibration-assisted micro-end-milling. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 50:1115–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Babitsky VI, Kalashnikov AN, Meadows A, Wijesundara AAH (2003) Ultrasonically assisted turning of aviation materials. J Mater Process Technol 132:157–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kitagawa T, Kubo A, Maekawa K (1997) Temperature and wear of cutting tools in high-speed machining of Inconel 718 and Ti6Al6V2Sn. Wear 202:142–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Palanisamy S, McDonald SD, Dargusch MS (2009) Effects of coolant pressure on chip formation while turning Ti6Al4V alloy. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 49:739–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nandy AK, Gowrishankar MC, Paul S (2009) Some studies on high-pressure cooling in turning of Ti-6Al-4V. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 49:182–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tsutsumi C, Okano K, Suto T (1993) High quality machining of ceramics. J Mater Process Technol 37:639–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Antwi EK, Liu K, Wang H (2018) A review on ductile mode cutting of brittle materials. Front Mech Eng 13:251–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ngoi BKA, Sreejith PS (2000) Ductile regime finish machining—a review. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 16:547–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Spur G, Holl S-E (1996) Ultrasonic assisted grinding of ceramics. J Mater Process Technol 62:287–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Amini S, Soleimanimehr H, Nategh MJ, Abudollah A, Sadeghi MH (2008) FEM analysis of ultrasonic-vibration-assisted turning and the vibratory tool. J Mater Process Technol 201:43–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yanyan Y, Bo Z, Junli L (2009) Ultraprecision surface finishing of nano-ZrO2 ceramics using two-dimensional ultrasonic assisted grinding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 43:462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tian Y, Shin YC (2005) Thermal modeling for laser-assisted machining of silicon nitride ceramics with complex features. J Manuf Sci Eng 128:425–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tian Y, Wu B, Anderson M, Shin YC (2008) Laser-assisted milling of silicon nitride ceramics and Inconel 718. J Manuf Sci Eng 130:031013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shams OA, Pramanik A, Chandratilleke TT (2017) Thermal-assisted machining of titanium alloys. In: Gupta K (ed) Advanced manufacturing technologies. Springer, pp 49–76Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chang CW, Kuo CP (2007) An investigation of laser-assisted machining of Al2O3 ceramics planing. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 47:452–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tosun N, Ozler L (2004) Optimisation for hot turning operations with multiple performance characteristics. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 23:777–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    López de Lacalle LN, Sánchez JA, Lamikiz A, Celaya A (2004) Plasma assisted milling of heat-resistant superalloys. J Manuf Sci Eng 126:274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Özler L, İnan A, Özel C (2001) Theoretical and experimental determination of tool life in hot machining of austenitic manganese steel. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 41:163–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jeon Y, Lee CM (2012) Current research trend on laser assisted machining. Int J Precis Eng Manuf 13:311–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Novak JW, Shin YC, Incropera FP (1997) Assessment of plasma enhanced machining for improved machinability of Inconel 718. J Manuf Sci Eng 119:125–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Leshock CE, Kim JN, Shin YC (2001) Plasma enhanced machining of Inconel 718: modeling of workpiece temperature with plasma heating and experimental results. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 41:877–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Madhavulu G, Ahmed B (1994) Hot machining process for improved metal removal rates in turning operations. J Mater Process Technol 44:199–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chen SH, Tsai KT (2017) The study of plasma-assisted machining to Inconel-718. Adv Mech Eng 9:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1687814017735789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kttagawa T, Maekawa K (1990) Plasma got machining for new engineering materials. Wear 139:251–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lee YJ (2019) Thermal expansion control in heat assisted machining of calcium fluoride single crystals. In: 19th international conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (euspen)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lee YJ, Chaudhari A, Zhang J, Wang H (2019) Thermally assisted microcutting of calcium fluoride single crystals. In: Simulation and experiments of material-oriented ultra-precision machining. Springer, Singapore, pp 77–127Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang H, Senthil Kumar A, Riemer O (2018) On the theoretical foundation for the microcutting of calcium fluoride single crystals at elevated temperatures. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part B J Eng Manuf 232:1123–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lei S, Shin YC, Incropera FP (2001) Experimental investigation of thermo-mechanical characteristics in laser-assisted machining of silicon nitride ceramics. J Manuf Sci Eng 123:639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Anderson M, Patwa R, Shin YC (2006) Laser-assisted machining of Inconel 718 with an economic analysis. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 46:1879–1891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shayan AR, Poyraz HB, Ravindra D, Patten JA (2009) Pressure and temperature effects in micro-laser assisted machining (μ-LAM) of silicon carbide. Trans North Am Manuf Res Inst SME 37:75–80Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shayan AR, Poyraz HB, Ravindra D, Ghantasala M, Patten JA (2009) Force analysis, mechanical energy and laser heating evaluation of scratch tests on silicon carbide (4H-SiC) in micro-laser assisted machining (µ-LAM) process. In: ASME 2009 international manufacturing science and engineering conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, pp 827–832Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cline HE, Anthony TR (1977) Heat treating and melting material with a scanning laser or electron beam. J Appl Phys 48:3895–3900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Spalding IJ (1974) Lasers—their applications and operational requirements. Opt Laser Technol 6:263–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chryssolouris G, Anifantis N, Karagiannis S (1997) Laser assisted machining: an overview. Trans ASME 119:766–769Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tomizawa H, Fischer TE (1987) Friction and wear of silicon nitride and silicon carbide in water: hydrodynamic lubrication at low sliding speed obtained by tribochemical wear. A S L E Trans 30:41–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hibi Y, Enomoto Y, Kikuchi K, Shikata N, Ogiso H (1995) Excimer laser assisted chemical machining of SiC ceramic. Appl Phys Lett 66:817–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chavoshi SZ, Xu S (2018) Temperature-dependent nanoindentation response of materials. MRS Commun 8:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yan J, Asami T, Harada H, Kuriyagawa T (2009) Fundamental investigation of subsurface damage in single crystalline silicon caused by diamond machining. Precis Eng 33:378–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Domnich V, Aratyn Y, Kriven WM, Gogotsi Y (2008) Temperature dependence of silicon hardness: experimental evidence of phase transformations. Rev Adv Mater Sci 17:33–41Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Khayyat MMO, Hasko DG, Chaudhri MM (2007) Effect of sample temperature on the indentation-induced phase transitions in crystalline silicon. J Appl Phys 101:83515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Khayyat MM, Banini GK, Hasko DG, Chaudhri MM (2003) Raman microscopy investigations of structural phase transformations in crystalline and amorphous silicon due to indentation with a Vickers diamond at room temperature and at 77 K. J Phys D Appl Phys 36:1300–1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ravindra D, Ghantasala MK, Patten J (2012) Ductile mode material removal and high-pressure phase transformation in silicon during micro-laser assisted machining. Precis Eng 36:364–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Yan J, Maekawa K, Tamaki J, Kuriyagawa T (2005) Micro grooving on single-crystal germanium for infrared Fresnel lenses. J Micromech Microeng 15:1925–1931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Clarke DR, Kroll MC, Kirchner PD, Cook RF, Hockey BJ (1988) Amorphization and conductivity of silicon and germanium induced by indentation. Phys Rev Lett 60:2156–2159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Patten JA, Jacob J (2008) Comparison between numerical simulations and experiments for single-point diamond turning of single-crystal silicon carbide. J Manuf Process 10:28–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Patten J, Fesperman R, Kumar S, McSpadden S, Qu J, Lance M, Nemanich R, Huening J (2003) High-pressure phase transformation of silicon nitride. Appl Phys Lett 83:4740–4742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wang H, Riemer O, Rickens K, Brinksmeier E (2016) On the mechanism of asymmetric ductile–brittle transition in microcutting of (111) CaF2 single crystals. Scr Mater 114:21–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mizumoto Y, Kangawa H, Itobe H, Tanabe T, Kakinuma Y (2017) Influence of crystal anisotropy on subsurface damage in ultra-precision cylindrical turning of CaF2. Precis Eng 49:104–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Muñoz A, Domínguez-Rodríguez A, Castaing J (1994) Slip systems and plastic anisotropy in CaF2. J Mater Sci 29:6207–6211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Chaudhari A, Lee YJ, Wang H, Kumar AS (2017) Thermal effect on brittle–ductile transition in CaF2 single crystals. In: 17th international conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (euspen)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Shahinian H, Navare J, Zaytsev D, Kode S, Azimi F (2018) Effect of laser-assisted diamond turning (Micro-LAM) on form and finish of selected IR crystals. In: 33rd annual meeting of American Society for Precision Engineering, Las Vegas, Nevada, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Shahinian H, Navare J, Zaytsev D, Ravindra D (2019) Microlaser assisted diamond turning of precision silicon optics. Opt Eng 58:1–8Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mohammadi H, Ravindra D, Kode SK, Patten JA (2015) Experimental work on micro laser-assisted diamond turning of silicon (111). J Manuf Process 19:125–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ravindra D, Kode SK, Stroshine C, Morrison D, Mitchell M (2017) Micro-laser assisted machining: the future of manufacturing silicon optics. In: Proceedings of the SPIEGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Suthar K, Patten JA, Dong L, Abdel-aal H (2008) Estimation of temperature distribution in silicon during micro laser assisted machining. In: ASME 2008 international manufacturing science and engineering conference collocated with the 3rd JSME/ASME international conference on materials and processing, Evanston, Illinois, USAGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Patten J, Ghantasala M, Shayan AR, Bogac Poyraz H, Ravindra D (2009) Micro-laser assisted machining (µ-LAM): scratch tests on 4H-SiC. In: Proceedings of 2009 NSF engineering research and innovation conference, Honolulu, HawaiiGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Leung TP, Lee WB, Lu XM (1998) Diamond turning of silicon substrates in ductile-regime. J Mater Process Technol 73:42–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Yan J, Yoshino M, Kuriagawa T, Shirakashi T, Syoji K, Komanduri R (2001) On the ductile machining of silicon for micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), opto-electronic and optical applications. Mater Sci Eng A 297:230–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ravindra D, Poyraz HB, Patten J (2010) The effect of laser heating on the ductile to brittle transition of silicon. In: The 5th international conference in micromanufacturing (ICOMM/4M), Wisconsin, USAGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ravindra D, Poyraz HB, Patten J (2010) The effect of laser heating on the ductile to brittle transition of silicon carbide. Manufacturing Research Center, Western Michigan UniversityGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Yan J, Tamaki J, Syoji K, Kuriyagawa T (2004) Single-point diamond turning of CaF2 for nanometric surface. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 24:640–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ravindra D, Ponthapalli SC, Patten J (2013) Micro-laser assisted single point diamond turning feasibility tests of single crystal silicon. In: American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE) 28th annual meeting, St. Paul, MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mohammadi H, Patten JA (2016) Laser augmented diamond drilling: a new technique to drill hard and brittle materials. Procedia Manuf 5:1337–1347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Shimada S, Tanaka H, Higuchi M, Yamaguchi T, Honda S, Obata K (2004) Thermo-chemical wear mechanism of diamond tool in machining of ferrous metals. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 53:57–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Schuelke T, Grotjohn TA (2013) Diamond polishing. Diam Relat Mater 32:17–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fedoseev DV, Vnukov SP, Bukhovets VL, Anikin BA (1986) Surface graphitization of diamond at high temperatures. Surf Coatings Technol 28:207–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Yan J, Syoji K, Kuriyagawa T (2000) Ductile–brittle transition at large negative tool rake angles. J Jpn Soc Precis Eng 66:1130–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Patten JA, Shayan AR, Poyraz HB, Ravindra D, Ghantasala M (2009) Scratch tests on 4H-SiC using micro laser assisted machining (μ-LAM) system. In: Advance laser applications conference and exposition, San Jose, California, USAGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Douglas-Hamilton DH, Hoag ED, Seitz JRM (1974) Diamond as a high-power-laser window. J Opt Soc Am 64:36–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Zaitsev AM (2001) Optical properties of diamond. Springer, Berlin, HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Collins AT (1993) Intrinsic and extrinsic absorption and luminescence in diamond. Phys B Condens Matter 185:284–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mizumoto Y, Amano H, Kangawa H, Harano K, Sumiya H, Kakinuma Y (2018) On the improvement of subsurface quality of CaF2 single crystal machined by boron-doped nano-polycrystalline diamond tools. Precis Eng 52:73–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fontanella J, Johnston RL, Colwell JH, Andeen C (1977) Temperature and pressure variation of the refractive index of diamond. Appl Opt 16:2949–2951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Chaudhari A, Soh ZY, Wang H, Kumar AS (2018) Rehbinder effect in ultraprecision machining of ductile materials. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 133:47–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Chaudhari A, Wang H (2019) Effect of surface-active media on chip formation in micromachining. J Mater Process Technol 271:325–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rozzi JC, Pfefferkorn FE, Shin YC, Incropera FP (2000) Experimental evaluation of the laser assisted machining of silicon nitride ceramics. Trans ASME 122:666–670zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pfefferkorn FE (1997) Laser pyrometry: non-intrusive temperature measurement for laser-assisted machining of ceramics. Purdue UniversityGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Dinc C, Lazoglu I, Serpenguzel A (2008) Analysis of thermal fields in orthogonal machining with infrared imaging. J Mater Process Technol 198:147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Davies MA, Yoon H, Schmitz TL, Burns TJ, Kennedy MD (2003) Calibrated thermal microscopy of the tool-chip interface in machining. Mach Sci Technol 7:167–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Xiong HP, Kawasaki A, Kang YS, Watanabe R (2005) Experimental study on heat insulation performance of functionally graded metal/ceramic coatings and their fracture behavior at high surface temperatures. Surf Coatings Technol 194:203–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gavrunov A, Ravindra D (2013) Custom cooling stage to eliminate thermal expansion of spindle during micro-laser assisted machining. In: Advance laser applications conference and exposition, Chicago, Illinois, USAGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Chaudhari A, Antwi EK, Wang H, Liu K, Kumar AS, Tu J, Zhang X (2017) Tool design and implementation for thermally assisted ultraprecision diamond turning. In: The 7th international conference of Asian Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, Seoul, KoreaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Singapore Institute of Manufacturing TechnologySingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.School of Mechanical EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations