Advertisement

Introduction

  • Kiu LiuEmail author
  • Hao Wang
  • Xinquan Zhang
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing book series (SSAM)

Abstract

Brittle material has been widely employed in industry due to its excellent mechanical, electrical, optical, physical and chemical properties. However, it is extremely difficult to machine brittle material using conventional cutting technologies to achieve very smooth and damage-free surfaces due to its high hardness, high wear-resistance and high toughness. While obtaining smooth surface on brittle material by traditional grinding, lapping and polishing methods is very costly and time consuming, such that its engineering applications are largely limited. A technology for efficiently cutting of brittle material is urgently needed for the industry. Ductile mode cutting (DMC) is a very promising technical solution to achieve high quality and crack-free surface in cutting of brittle material, which has been recognized as an important technique for the industry. DMC is a material removal process particularly for brittle material using a rigid cutting tool, where stock material is removed by plastic deformation rather than fracturing. Therefore, it has been attracting more and more affords to study ductile mode cutting of brittle material. It is believed that ductile mode cutting of brittle material can be achieved under certain cutting conditions, while crack-free and no subsurface-damage surfaces can be obtained simultaneously.

References

  1. 1.
    Venkatesh VC, Inasaki I, Toenshof HK et al (1995) Observations on polishing and ultraprecision machining of semiconductor substrate materials. CIRP Ann 44:611–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tönshoff HK, Schmieden WV, Inasaki I et al (1990) Abrasive machining of silicon. CIRP Ann 39:621–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pei ZJ, Fisher GR, Liu J (2008) Grinding of silicon wafers: a review from historical perspectives. I J Mach Too Manu 48:1297–1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liu K, Zuo DW, Li XP et al (2009) Nanometric ductile cutting characteristics of silicon wafer using single crystal diamond tools. J Vac Sci Tech B, Nanotech Microel: Mater Proc Meas Phe 27:1361–1366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blake P, Bifano TG, Dow T, Scattergood RO (1988) Precision machining of ceramic materials. Amer Cer Soc Bull 67:1038–1044Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beltrao PA, Gee AE, Corbett J, Whatmore RW (1999) Ductile mode machining of commercial PZT ceramics. Ann CIRP 48:437–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bifano TG, Dow TA, Scattergood RO (1991) Ductile-regime grinding: a new technology for machining brittle materials. ASME T J Eng Ind 113:184–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Blackley WS, Scattergood RO (1994) Chip topography for ductile-regime machining of germanium. ASME T J Eng I 116:263–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ngoi BKA, Sreejith PS (2000) Ductile regime finish machining—A review. I J Adv Manu Tech 16:547–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blaedel KL, Taylor JS, Evans CJ (1999) Ductile-regime grinding of brittle materials. In: Jahanmir S, Ramulu M, Koshy P (eds) Machining of ceramics and composites. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 139–176Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Neo KW, Kumar AS, Rahman M (2012) A review on the current research trends in ductile regime machining. I J Adv Manu Tech 63:465–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Antwi EK, Liu K, Wang H (2018) A review on ductile mode cutting of brittle materials. Front Mech Eng 13:251–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu K (2002) Ductile cutting for rapid prototyping of tungsten carbide tools. NUS PhD thesis, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Domnich V, Gogotsi Y (2002) Phase transformations in silicon under contact loading. Rev Adv Mater Sci 3:1–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fang FZ, Chen LJ (2000) Ultra-precision cutting for ZKN7 glass. CIRP Ann 49:17–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    King RF, Tabor D (1954) The strength properties and frictional behaviour of brittle solids. Proc R Soc London Ser A Math Phys Sci 223:225–238Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Huerta M, Malkin S (1976) Grinding of glass: the mechanics of the process. J Eng Ind 98:459–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Foy K, Wei Z, Matsumura T et al (2009) Effect of tilt angle on cutting regime transition in glass micro-milling. I J Mach Too Manu 49:315–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ono T, Matsumura T (2008) Influence of tool inclination on brittle fracture in glass cutting with ball end mills. J Mater Proc Tech 202:61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Matsumura T, Ono T (2008) Cutting process of glass with inclined ball end mill. J Mater Proc Tech 200:356–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Takeuchi Y, Sawada K, Sata T (1996) Ultra-precision 3D micromachining of glass. CIRP Ann 45:401–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Liu K, Li XP, Liang SY (2007) The mechanism of ductile chip formation in cutting of brittle materials. I J Adv Manu Tech 33:875–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liu K, Li XP, Liang YS (2004) Nanometer-scale ductile cutting of tungsten carbide. J Manu Proc 6:187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Arif M, Rahman M, Wong YS (2011) Analytical model to determine the critical feed per edge for ductile-brittle transition in milling process of brittle materials. I J Mach Too Manu 51:170–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Arif M, Rahman M, Wong YS (2011) Ultra-precision ductile mode machining of glass by micro-milling process. J Manu Proc 13:50–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Swain MV (1979) Microfracture about scratches in brittle solids. Proc Roy Soc London A, Math Phy Sci 366:575–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dolev D (1983) A note on plasticity of glass. J Mater Sci L 2:703–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Finnie I, Dolev D, Khatibloo M (1981) On the physical basis of Auerbach’s law. J Eng Mater Tech 103:183–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lawn BR, Evans AG (1977) A model for crack initiation in elastic/plastic indentation fields. J Mater Sci 12:2195–2199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yan J, Yoshino M, Kuriagawa T et al (2001) On the ductile machining of silicon for micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), optoelectronic and optical applications. Mater Sci Eng A 297:230–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shimada S, Ikawa N, Inamura T et al (1995) Brittle-ductile transition phenomena in micro-indentation and micromachining. CIRP Ann 44:523–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bridgman P, Šimon I (1953) Effects of very high pressures on glass. J App Phy 24:405–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sun YL, Zuo DW, Wang HY et al (2011) Mechanism of brittle-ductile transition of a glass-ceramic rigid substrate. I J Min Metal Mater 18:229–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Clarke DR, Kroll MC, Kirchner PD et al (1988) Amorphization and conductivity of silicon and germanium induced by indentation. Phy R L 60:2156–2159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gridneva IV, Milman YV, Trefilov VI (1972) Phase transition in diamond-structure crystals during hardness measurements. Phy St Sol 14:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lawn BR, Wilshaw R (1975) Indentation fracture: principles and applications. J Mater Sci 10:1049–1081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Liu K, Li XP, Rahman M et al (2004) A study of the cutting modes in grooving of tungsten carbide. I J Adv Manu Tech 24:321–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chandraseker S, Sathyanarayanan G (1987) An investigation into the mechanics of diamond grinding of brittle materials. In: 15th NAMRC Proceeding, vol 2, pp 499–505Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Campbell GH, Dalgleish BJ, Evans AG (1989) Brittle-to-ductile transition in silicon carbide. J Amer Cer Soc 72:1402–1408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fang FZ, Venkatesh VC (1998) Diamond cutting of silicon with nanometric finish. CIRP Ann 47:45–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Moriwaki T, Shamoto E, Inoue K (1992) Ultra-precision ductile cutting of glass by applying ultrasonic vibration. CIRP Ann 41:141–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zhong Z, Venkatesh VC (1995) Semi-ductile grinding and polishing of ophthalmic aspherics and spherics. CIRP Ann 44:339–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zarudi I, Zhang L (1999) Initiation of dislocation systems in alumina under single-point scratching. J Mater Res 14:1430–1436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Shaw MC (1972) New theory of grinding. Mech Chem Eng T, Ins Eng Australia, pp 73–78Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Komanduri R (1971) Some aspects of machining with negative rake tools simulating grinding. I J Mach Too De Res 11:223–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nakasuji T, Kodera S, Hara S et al (1990) Diamond turning of brittle materials for optical components. CIRP Ann 39:89–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hahn GT, Reid CN, Gilbert A (1963) The dislocation dynamics of plastic flow. Proc I Prod Eng Res Conf Pittsburgh, USA, pp 293–301Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rice JR, Thomsom R (1974) Ductile versus brittle behaviour of crystals. Phil Mag 29:73–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Michot G, de Oliveira MAL, Champier G (1999) A model of dislocation multiplication at a crack tip influencing on the brittle to ductile transition. Mater Sci Eng A 272:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hartmaier A, Gumbsch P (1999) The brittle-to-ductile transition and dislocation activity at crack tips. J Comp-Ai Mater Des 6:145–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Thomsom RM, Sinclair JE (1982) Mechanics of cracks screened by dislocation. Act Meta 30:1325–1334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ohr SM (1985) An electron microscope study of crack tip deformation and its impact on the dislocation theory of fracture. Mater Sci Eng 72:1–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ferney BD, Hsia KJ (1999) The influence of multiple slip systems on the brittle-ductile transition in silicon. Mater Sci Eng A 272:422–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lin IH, Thomsom R (1986) Cleavage, dislocation emission, and shielding for cracks under general loading. Ac Meta 34:187–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Samuels J, Roberts SG, Hirsch PB (1988) The brittle-to-ductile transition in silicon. Mater Sci Eng A 105(106):39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ebrahimi F, Shrivastava S (1997) Crack initiation and propagation in brittle-to-ductile transition regime of NiAl single crystals. Mater Sci Eng A 239–240:386–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kimura Y, Pope DP (1998) Ductility and toughness in intermetallics. Inetrmetallics 6:567–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Imayev VM, Imayev RM, Salishchev GA (2000) On two stages of brittle-to-ductile transition in TiAl intermetallic. Intermetallics 8:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    John CST (1975) The brittle-to-ductile transition in pre-cleaved silicon single crystals. Phil Mag 30:1193–1212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rouxel T, Sangleboeuf JC (2000) The brittle to ductile transition in a soda-lime-silica glass. J N-Cry Sol 271:224–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chen W, Ravichandran G (2000) Failure mode transition in ceramics under dynamic multiaxial compression. I J Frac 101:141–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Huerta M, Malkin S (1976) Grinding of glass: surface strength and fracture strength. ASME T J Eng Ind 98:468–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Toh SB, McPherson R (1986) Fine scale abrasive wear of ceramics by a plastic cutting process. In: Brookes CA, Warren R, Almond EA (eds) Science of hard materials, Adam Hilger, Boston, pp 865–871Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Venkatesh VC, Awaluddin MS, Ariffin AR (1999) The tool life, mechanics, and economics in conventional and ultra-precision machining. ASME I Mech Eng Con Ex 10:847–854Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lawn BR, Padture NP, Cai H et al (1994) Making ceramics ductile. Science 263:1114–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Morris JC, Callahan DL, Kulik J et al (1995) Origins of the ductile regime in single-point diamond turning of semiconductors. J Ame Cer Soc 78:2015–2020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Strenkowski JS, Hiatt GD (1990) A technique for predicting the ductile regime in single point diamond turning of brittle materials. Funda Iss Mach: Ame Soc Mech Eng 43:67–80Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Singapore Institute of Manufacturing TechnologySingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.School of Mechanical EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations