Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Migrating Population

  • Yun-xia Wang
  • Mei-juan Zhang
  • Juan-juan Zhang
  • Qing-fang Wu
  • Li-ai Peng


Along with increasing mobility of populations, TB in migrating population is one of the main reasons for aggravating epidemics of TB. TB in migrating population is more serious than that in common people, with more factors influencing its epidemics and more challenging detection and management. The migrating population with TB is characterized by high mobility, low socioeconomic status, poor living conditions in areas with heavy TB burden, insufficient knowledge about health, poor accessibility of health-care service, and prolonged delay for diagnosis and treatment of TB. The morbidity and mortality of TB in migrating populations are higher than those in urban residents and the migrating population is the high-risk population of TB. TB in migrating population constitutes a great challenge to prevention and control of TB.


  1. 1.
    Zhuo ZW. Report on population migration and migrating population in China across the century. Beijing: Population Institution, Renmin University of China; 2003. p. 89.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wu X. Rural community in cities: areas inhabited by the migrating population. Urban Plan. 2001;12:25–30.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hugo GJ. Migration as a survival strategy: the family dimension of migration. In: Population distribution and migration. New York: United Nations, Department for Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; 1998. p. 49–65.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Li Y, Wang Y. Studies on factors influencing tuberculosis. Foreign Med Sci. 2005;22:53–7.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pons JEPA. Testing the new economic geography: migrations and industrial agglomerations in Spain. J Reg Sci. 2007;47:289–313.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nigg C. Medical problems in migrants. Praxis. 2003;92(15):689–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bwire R, Nagelkerke N, Keizer ST, et al. Tuberculosis screening among immigrants in The Netherlands: what is its contribution to public health. Neth J Med. 2000;56(2):63–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Han Q. Urban development and problems in Latin America. Res Latin Am. 1999;2:44–9.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang JT. Modern development of Latin America and the problems. J Hebei Univ. 2000;1:11–5.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhao HY. Migration of rural population during industrialization in Latin America and Africa. J Cap Univ Econ Bus. 2007;1:111–5.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hugo G. Changing patterns and processes of population mobility. In: Population and human resource. Canberra: Australian National University; 1997. p. 68–100.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhu Y. Foreign studies on non-permanent migration of population and the implications to the issues of migrating population in China. Pop Res. 2004;28:52–9.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhong D. Prevalence of tuberculosis in migrating population and developments in its control strategies. Prevent Contr Dis. 2011;38:4277–82.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    UN. Total international migrant stock. New York: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs; 2015.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lönnroth K, Mor Z, Erkens C, et al. Tuberculosis in migrants in low-incidence countries: epidemiology and intervention entry points. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2017;21(6):624–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stewart RJ, Tsang CA, Pratt RH, et al. Tuberculosis--United States 2017. Atlanta: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep; 2018.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Odone A, Tillmann T, Sandgren A, et al. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area. Eur J Pub Health. 2015;25(3):506–12.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhong D, Zhang YH, Fu YY, et al. Research development on prevalence of tuberculosis in the migrating population and the control strategies. Mod Prevent Med. 2011;20:4277–8.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xie RQ, Cheng JQ, Yang YZ, et al. Social support to patients with tuberculosis in the migrating population. Chin J Behav Med Sci. 2006;5:437–9.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jia L, Li X, Li J, et al. Geographic distribution of registered TB patients in the population living at the place other than their registered permanent residence in China. Chin J Anti-tuberc. 2012;34(11):712–20.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Du X, Liu EY, Cheng SM. Analysis of new smear positive TB patients in registered migrating population of 2010 in China. Chin J Anti-tuberc. 2011;33(8):461–5.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chen J, Wei XL, Li HD. Factors influencing treatment and management of tuberculosis in the migrating population of Shanghai. Chin J Anti-tuberc. 2009;31(6):337–40.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yang SB, Li Q, Miao ZP. Surveillance of pulmonary tuberculosis in the migrating population in Zhejiang province in 2001-2002. Chin J Anti-tuberc. 2004;26(3):170–2.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wu QF, Lv DL, Guan HY, et al. Epidemiological study of pulmonary tuberculosis in 2007-2016 in Shenzhen. J Trop Med. 2018;1:86–9.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Liu XQ, Jiang SW, Li XX, et al. Provincial distribution of active pulmonary tuberculosis in the migrating population in 2010. J Dis Surveill. 2013;28(7):521–7.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhong J, Mai JE, Luo YL, et al. Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in Haizhu district of Guangzhou. Chin J Anti-tuberc. 2006;28(1):25–7.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhao P, Li HM, Yang ZB, et al. Epidemiological study on pulmonary tuberculosis in the migrating population in Chaoyang district of Beijing in 1996-2006. J Dis Contr. 2008;12(1):83–5.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bi HS. Treatment and management of tuberculosis in the migrating population in Baoan district of Shenzhen. Wuhan: Huazhong University of Science and Technology; 2015.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Health Commission of P. R. China. Law of People’s Republic of China on Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases (No. 17th Presidential Order of the People’s Republic of China) issued on Aug 28, 2004.
  30. 30.
    Center for Disease Control of China. Notice on Publication of 2016 Technical Guideline for National Infectious Diseases Information Reporting Management (No. [2016] 106 issued by CDC of China).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Health Commission of P. R. China. Health-care Occupational Standards of People’s Republic of China: the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis. November 9, 2017.
  32. 32.
    Wu QF, Lv DL, Guan HY, et al. Epidemiological analysis of tuberculosis in Shenzhen during 2007 to 2016. J Trop Med. 2018;18(1):86–9.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Statistics Bureau of Shenzhen and Shenzhen Survey Team of the National Statistics Bureau of China. 2016 statistical annuals in Shenzhen. Beijing: China Statistics Press; 2016. p. 53–5.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Health Ministry of People’s Republic of China. Complied data about the national epidemiological sampling survey on tuberculosis in 2000. Beijing: People’s Medical Publishing House; 2000.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wang Y. Complied data about the 5th national epidemiological sampling survey on tuberculosis. Beijing: Military Medical Science Press; 2011.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Technical Guidance Team of the 5th National Epidemiological Sampling Survey on Tuberculosis and the Management Office of the 5th National Epidemiological Sampling Survey on Tuberculosis. Report of the 5th national epidemiological sampling survey on tuberculosis in 2010. Chin J Anti-tuberc. 2012;34(8):485–508.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Disease Prevention and Control Bureau of Health Ministry & Health-care Administration Department of Health Ministry & Center for Disease Control of China. The 2008 technical guideline for implementation of tuberculosis prevention and treatment planning. Beijing: Peking Union Medical College Press.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    An YS, Zhang LX, Tu DH. Effects of migrating population on the prevalence of tuberculosis in Beijing. Chin J Anti-tuberc. 2004;6:4–8.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Xia Z, Mei J, Ni HL, et al. Effects of migrating population on tuberculosis control in Shanghai. Shanghai Prevent Med. 2008;20(2):67–8.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Liu CX. Effects of migrating population on prevalence of tuberculosis in Huangdao district of Qingdao in 1995-2004. 2005.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yang TC, Hong H, Chen T, et al. Sociological factors influencing prevalence and spatial distribution of tuberculosis in influx cities by migrating population. Chin J Amphixenosis. 2017;9:800–4.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mu WM, Wang FX, Jiang J. Effects of migrating population on prevalence of TB in Suzhou. Mod Prevent Med. 2016;6:1047–50.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zhu LM, Xu WG, Peng H, et al. Demographic analysis of patients with tuberculosis in Sunan region of China and effects of migrating population on its prevalence in the region. Chin J Dis Contr. 2011;11:975–7.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Khyatti M, Trimbitas RD, Zouheir Y, et al. Infectious diseases in North Africa and North African immigrants to Europe. Eur J Publ Health. 2014;24(suppl 1):47–56.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hollo V, Kotila SM, Kodmon C, et al. The effect of migration within the European Union/European Economic Area on the distribution of tuberculosis, 2007 to 2013. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(12):30171.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    van der Werf MJ, Zellweger JP. Impact of migration on tuberculosis epidemiology and control in the EU/EEA. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(12):30174.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kodmon C, Zucs P, van der Werf MJ. Migration-related tuberculosis: epidemiology and characteristics of tuberculosis cases originating outside the European Union and European Economic Area, 2007 to 2013. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(12):30164.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pareek M, Greenaway C, Noori T, et al. The impact of migration on tuberculosis epidemiology and control in high-income countries: a review. BMC Med. 2016;14:48.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gilbert RL, Antoine D, French CE, et al. The impact of immigration on tuberculosis rates in the United Kingdom compared with other European countries. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009;13(5):645–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Buonora N, Chiavarini M, Salmasi L, et al. Impact of immigration on burden of tuberculosis in Umbria: a low-incidence Italian region with high immigrants rates. J Prev Med Hyg. 2013;54(1):29.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Molina-Salas Y, de Las MLM, Romera-Guirado FJ, et al. Influence of migration on tuberculosis in a semi-urban area. Arch Bronconeumol. 2014;50(8):325–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Svensson E, Millet J, Lindqvist A, et al. Impact of immigration on tuberculosis epidemiology in a low-incidence country. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17(6):881–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Geng E, Kreiswirth B, Driver C, et al. Changes in the transmission of tuberculosis in New York City from 1990 to 1999. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(19):1453–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Menzies HJ, Winston CA, Holtz TH, et al. Epidemiology of tuberculosis among US- and foreign-born children and adolescents in the United States, 1994-2007. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(9):1724–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Liu Y, Painter JA, Posey DL, et al. Estimating the impact of newly arrived foreign-born persons on tuberculosis in the United States. PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e32158.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ashley MJ, Anderson TW, Le Riche WH. The influence of immigration on tuberculosis in Ontario. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1974;110(2):137–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Vanhomwegen J, Kwara A, Martin M, et al. Impact of immigration on the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in Rhode Island. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49(3):834–44.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Menzies D, Chan CH, Vissandjee B. Impact of immigration on tuberculosis infection among Canadian-born schoolchildren and young adults in Montreal. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;156(6):1915–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Barniol J, Niemann S, Louis VR, et al. Transmission dynamics of pulmonary tuberculosis between autochthonous and immigrant sub-populations. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:197.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© People's Medical Publishing House, PR of China 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yun-xia Wang
    • 1
  • Mei-juan Zhang
    • 1
  • Juan-juan Zhang
    • 1
  • Qing-fang Wu
    • 2
  • Li-ai Peng
    • 1
  1. 1.Baoan Chronic Diseases Prevent and Cure HospitalShenzhenChina
  2. 2.Shenzhen Center for Chronic Disease ControlShenzhenChina

Personalised recommendations