China shocked the world when it launched the first of its five offensive campaigns south of the Yalu in October 1950. Between late November and mid-December, the CPVF’s second offensive pushed UNF to the 38th Parallel and recaptured Pyongyang. By early January 1951, the CPVF’s third offensive crossed the 38th Parallel into South Korea, captured Seoul, and pushed the UNF to the 37th Parallel. By the end of their fourth offensive campaign, nearly 950,000 Chinese troops were in Korea, including forty-two infantry divisions. Nevertheless, Chinese forces lost their fifth offensive campaign in May. Realizing China was incapable of ousting the UNF from the Korean Peninsula, Chinese leadership accepted a settlement without total victory, and truce negotiations began at Kaesong on July 10.