Heavy Metal Exposure and Children’s Health

  • Yuhan Zhou
  • Wenjuan MaEmail author


Due to the unique physiological and behavioral characteristics, children are easier to be exposed to environmental pollutants than general population. Children are more sensitive to chemical exposure as their organs are still developing and not yet mature. With the globalization of environmental pollution and the rapid economic growth, the exposure of low concentrations of heavy metals in children is increasingly a global health concern. In this chapter, we systematically review the exposure levels of heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium, etc.) and their adverse effects on children’s nerve system, kidney, and bone development. As a result, clarifying the major health effects of heavy metals on children will be beneficial for controlling the body burden of heavy metals.


Heavy metals Children Health effects 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Public HealthFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of EducationFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.MOE-Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children’s Environmental Health, Xinhua HospitalShanghai Jiao Tong University School of MedicineShanghaiChina

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