Plasticizer Exposure and Reproductive Health: Phthalates and Bisphenol A

  • Pengpeng Wang
  • Yan Zhao


Phthalates and bisphenol A are among the most popular plasticizers used today, which are ubiquitous environmental chemical pollutants with endocrine disruption. In this chapter, we summarize the basic characteristics of phthalates and bisphenol A and their effects on male and female reproductive health. We focus on the effects of phthalates exposure on testosterone level, anogenital distance, semen quality and hypospadias incidence in the male, as well as on precocious puberty, endometriosis, abnormalities of pregnancy in the female. Moreover, the effects of bisphenol A exposure on male semen quality, reproductive cells, sex hormones and female steroid hormone levels, reproductive organ diseases, and adverse birth outcomes are discussed. Results indicate that exposure to phthalates and bisphenol can adversely affect male and female reproductive health. However, evidence is still controversial. More large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to verify the effects of plasticizer exposure on reproductive health in humans.


Plasticizer Phthalates Bisphenol A Reproductive health 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pengpeng Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yan Zhao
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Public HealthFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of EducationFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Shanghai First Maternity and Infant HospitalTongji University School of MedicineShanghaiChina

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