Mapping Schools in Areas Prone to Natural Hazards in India: Understanding Context to Plan for Long-Term Benefit
Mapping often plays a very important role to understand and identify vulnerable areas, risk zones and to predict the risks in any particular area. With the advent of mapping technologies, all the countries across the world have prepared numerous maps that show the hazardous zones, vulnerability, risk, etc. Still, there is a dearth of mapping in India at micro levels for some particular areas which are vulnerable and where vulnerability directly impacts the children in various ways. These are mainly school children in the areas prone to natural or man-made hazards. This paper poses an argument that mapping of schools in India is important to understand the context of schools within a community in a holistic manner. Mapping with basic database generation for schools is specifically relevant and useful in the challenging locations facing natural hazards because it not only helps to locate the schools, but also helps to design any appropriate change intervention as per the context which can be beneficial for the school children for generations. Context mapping is useful for understanding the community, and therefore, to accelerate the process of involving the community in participatory mode of approach to arrive at a context-specific solution. Such a practice can enhance the process of decentralisation following a path of devolution. While mapping the context, apart from mere technical and locational mapping, emphasis must be given to mapping all possible aspects that influence the local schools, schooling trends, processes and practices. The paper has discussed the process of mapping schools in a few disaster-prone areas of India. During the field study, the data were collected from the schools, local community and administrative functionaries. Here, an attempt has been made to explain how this mapping process and its final outcomes can help in regional planning for the schools for long term in various regions of India. The arguments are supported by evidences from other relevant literatures from similar country context and also evidences from the experimentations made so far in the field. At the same time, the paper also has discussed about the potential of mapping the context in areas prone to natural hazards and/or disasters which might be useful for the regional planners as well as potential researchers willing to contribute meaningfully to similar processes and interventions.
KeywordsSchool context Community GPS GIS Internet
Special acknowledgement to colleagues of Azim Premji Foundation for Development, Barmer (Rajasthan) and Uttar Kashi (Uttarakhand) and colleagues of Azim Premji University, Bengaluru (Karnataka, India), few students of MA Education, Azim Premji University (2014–16 and 2015–17 batches).
- Catchnews (2016) Defying drought; Barmer farmers richer by Rs. 9 million due to cumin productionGoogle Scholar
- Department of School Education and Literacy, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government. http://schoolgis.nic.in
- Directorate of Census Operations, Rajasthan (2014). Census of India 2011: district census handbook, village and town directory. Ministry of home Aafairs, Jaipur, India.Google Scholar
- Funnell SC, Rogers PJ (2011) Purposeful program theory: effective use of theories of change and logic models, vol 31. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 370–373Google Scholar
- Gaillard JC, Maceda EA (2009) Participatory three dimensional mapping for disaster risk reduction. In: Reid H (ed) (2009) Community-based adaptation to climate change, vol 60. IIEDGoogle Scholar
- Paik S (2017) Educational policies in challenging areas. Learning Curve XXVII:43–47Google Scholar
- Paik S, Raghu Kumar CV (2015) Natural disasters and impact on schools in India. Disaster response and management. Uttarakhand (India): Centre for Disaster Management, LBSNAA, Mussoorie, 3(1):30–39Google Scholar
- Plush T (2009) Amplifying children’s voices on climate change: the role of participatory video. In: Reid H (ed) Community-based adaptation to climate change, vol 60. IIEDGoogle Scholar
- Thakur P (2017) India hailed for disaster management plan. Times of India. Retrieved from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/india-hailed-for-disaster-management-plan/articleshow/58833181.cms?utm_source=twitter.com&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=TOIIndiaNews&from=mdr. 17 May 2017
- UNESCO 47 million youth in India drop out of school by 10th standard. Retrieved from http://www.firstpost.com/india/unesco-47-million-youth-in-india-drop-out-of-school-by-10th-standard-2961334.html. FirstPost
- William Anderson A (2005) Bringing children into focus on the social science disaster research agenda. Int J Mass Emerg Disasters 23(3):159–175Google Scholar