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A Century of National Humiliation: Threats of Border Areas Fragmentation by the Imperialist Powers

  • Shiyuan HaoEmail author
Chapter
Part of the China Insights book series (CHINAIN)

Abstract

Ancient Chinese states were typified by variously sized city-states that existed prior to the country’s unification by Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of the Qin dynasty, in 221 BC. In many cases, these were vassal states characterized by the tribute paid to the ruling central dynasty.

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Copyright information

© China Social Sciences Press 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chinese Academy of Social SciencesBeijingChina

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