In Silico Approaches for Unearthing Bacterial Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors Against Pathogenic Bacteria
The bacterial phenotypic traits of biofilm formation, bioluminescence, swarming motility, and even virulence are being highly influenced by the phenomenon of cell density-dependent gene regulation a.k.a. quorum sensing (QS) through which the bacteria communicate within themselves. Essentially, QS is an intracellular signaling system which are different for the different gram characters of bacteria. While gram-negative bacteria use chemical autoinducer molecules like acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) for such signaling, the gram-positive bacteria use peptide-based signaling systems. These quorum-sensing peptides (QSPs) can initiate a signaling cascade of events via two-component system or even by direct binding to transcription factors. After the detection of QSPs by bacteria, response regulators or transcriptional factors are activated, which further stimulates change in the target gene expression. Owing to the therapeutic potential of the AHLs and QSPs as drug targets, different in silico approaches were utilized for the identification of inhibitors and their modeling which can help in combatingthe respective bacterial pathogenicity. Thus, certain group of researchers also developed machine learning tools based on support vector machine (SVM) and hidden Markov models (HMM) for the identification of novel and effective biofilm inhibitory peptides (BIPs), while others used in silico approaches for predicting and designing of antibiofilm peptides usingbidirectional recursive neural network (BRNN) and Random Forest (RF) algorithms. Moreover, biological network visualization techniques and analysis enabled the identification of QSPs in different bacteria using related information from the curated databases. To this end, identification of the binding pocket(s), motif search, and other physicochemical properties will help in predicting the three-dimensional structure of such target. Furthermore, ultra-high-throughput screening is another approach which unveils QS inhibitors (QSI) based on the characterization of natural products and screening for naturally occurring enzymes. This review specifically focuses on all such in silico approaches in predicting QSI in different bacterial species. Such in silico QSI predictions and their docking onto QS targets can help to shape up a promising future for making newer therapeutic options available against different pathogenic bacteria.
KeywordsQuorum sensing (QS) Inhibitors Bioinformatics
The author acknowledges the support of Sunway University, Selangor, Malaysia, for providing the computational facilities and wishes to thank Rohit Mishra for the valuable contribution in gathering the articles for the concept provided.
CL conceived the concepts, planned, and designed the article. SP primarily wrote the manuscript. This was further revamped by CL followed by PVB for final checking.
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