Substorm-Related ULF Waves and Their Interaction with Ions from Different Sources

Part of the Springer Theses book series (Springer Theses)


Based on a long-term magnetic field measurements from ground stations, the irregular fast-damped ULF waves in the period of 40–150 s were termed as Pi2 at the 13th General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) (Jacobs et al. in J Geophys Res 69(1):180–181, 1964, [4]), which is still in use today. Pi2 are usually associated with substorm activities (Saito in Space Sci Rev 10:319–412, 1969, [11]), and their energy is released during a magnetotail dipolarization process (Takahashi et al. in J Geophys Res 100(A11):21,929C21,941, 1995, [14]).


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Earth and Space SciencesPeking UniversityBeijingChina

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