Impact and Current Perspectives of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Soil

  • Monika Gupta
  • Divakar Sharma


Zinc oxide nanoparticles are being widely used in the nanotechnology industry. Due to the release of particles from zinc oxide nanoparticles containing products, it is likely that nanoparticles will enter the soil compartment mainly through the application of sewage mud sludge obtained from waste water treatment applications. This chapter presents an overview of the literature dealing with the fate and effects of zinc-oxide-based nanoparticles on the soil. The characteristics of NP in the environment (e.g., surface charge, shape, and size) and soil (eg, pH, soil content, ionic power and organic matter) will affect chemical and physical processes, which will result in agglomeration, aggregation and Nanoparticles dissolution. The characteristics and mobility of nanoparticles control the bioavailability of soil organisms as well. Consequently, exposure characterization in ecological toxic studies should focus more on dissolution, aggregation, and agglomeration processes. Comparing current studies is a daunting task because there are no standard toxicity tests for nanoparticles. In many cases, the reporting of the associated characterization data is sparse, or missing, which makes it impossible to explain and interpret the differences observed in the results of the studies.


Zinc oxide nanoparticles Toxicity Soil Bioaccumulation Magnification 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monika Gupta
    • 1
  • Divakar Sharma
    • 2
  1. 1.Amity Institute of BiotechnologyAmity University Madhya PradeshGwaliorIndia
  2. 2.Interdisciplinary Biotechnology UnitsAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia

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