The Use of Ozone as Redox Modulator in the Treatment of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

  • Emma BorrelliEmail author


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex and progressive disease associated with an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, and acute-phase proteins. This generalized oxidative/inflammatory status is accompanied by a downregulation of the cellular antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2).Therapeutic agents that activate Nrf2 may have a pivotal role in the rebalance of the altered redox system. This chapter explores how the ozone can act as an endogenous redox modulator in the integrated treatment of COPD.


Oxidative stress Ozone therapy Antioxidants Reactive oxygen species Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical BiotechnologiesUniversity of SienaSienaItaly

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