Business-University Collaboration in a Developing Country in the Industry 4.0 Era—The Case of Hungary
Emerging economies, as well as Hungary in Europe, are frequently host countries to multinational companies. For both parties it is a great challenge to build relevant knowledge- generating capacities which are attractive in respect of collaboration. In such collaborations those countries on the receiving end of foreign direct investment have the ambition to become more than mere pools of knowledge assets for multinational companies. An insight into Hungarian attempts to achieve this aim under difficult circumstances might be useful for other countries in similar situations. In recent years the majority of Hungarian business research and development expenditure has come from companies wholly-, or majority-owned by foreign interests. This high proportion indicates the significant role of foreign companies in the Hungarian research agenda and in business-university collaboration. This chapter focuses on how foreign companies are shaping business-university collaboration in research and experimental development and touches upon the role of government as facilitator. The subjects of research and development contracts and collaboration depend on the environment and on both potential partners—that is to say, by the types of demand generated by companies, and by how relevant are the competences and capabilities of universities in meeting these demands. Are they moving towards the cutting edge agendas inherent in Industry 4.0 and globalisation? Method of research: analysis of available data; information from websites and interviews with key actors who are partners in collaboration. The chapter also summarizes a few lessons which may be relevant for other economies too.
KeywordsBusiness—university collaboration Research and development episodes Host-country of multinational companies
List of Abbreviations
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Business R&D expenditure
Centre for World University Rankings
European Institute of Innovation and Technology
Eötvös Loránd University
European Patent Office
Foreign direct investment
Higher Education and Industry Cooperation Centres
Gross domestic product
Hungarian Central Statistical Office
Higher Education Institutes
Higher education R&D
Hungarian Forint (currency)
- Industry 4.0
Fourth Industrial Revolution
Intellectual Property Rights
Main Science and Technology Indicators
National innovation system
National Research, Development and Innovation Office
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Research and development
Research, development and innovation
Science and technology
Small and Medium Enterprise
Technology Transfer Office
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