Advertisement

Redefining the Internationalization of R&D Activities: How Far Have the Firms’ R&D Members of US and Japanese Companies Been Diversified?

  • Takabumi HayashiEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This paper examines that the role played by foreign researchers and engineers engaged in R&D activities in the US and the overseas R&D activities of US multinational corporations are no longer negligible. This paper focuses on the fact that foreign scientists and engineers residing in the US make considerable contributions as inventors of US patents, and it examines the extent to which the internationalization of R&D by US companies would result if the outcomes of their activities in the US were included in the internationalization of R&D. Specifically, the level of internationalization of R&D is verified by studying the nationality of the inventor’s institution (i.e., IBM), which has consistently been the top US patent collector from 1993 to 2017. Additionally, looking at Canon Inc., which has been exceptionally ranked in the top five from 1985 to 2017 in both the US and Japan, this paper examines the inventors and the nationalities of the organizations to which the inventors work, thereby confirming the internationalization of the company’s R&D in the same way. Finally, we examine how much the internationalization of R&D activities differs between IBM and Canon.

Keywords

Internationalization of R&D US Patents Japanese Patents IBM Corp. Canon Inc. Nationality of the Inventor’s Affiliation Foreign Researchers in the US 

References

  1. Asakawa, K. (2001). Organizational tension in international R&D management: The case of Japanese firms. Research Policy, 30(5), 735–757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Behrman, J. N., & Fischer, W. A. (1980). Overseas R&D activities of transnational companies. Cambridge: Oelgesclagert, Gunn & Hain.Google Scholar
  3. Belderbos, R., Lete, B., & Suzuki, S. (2013). How global is R&D? Firm-level determinants of home-country bias in R&D. Journal of International Business Studies, 44, 765–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cantwell, J. (1995). The globalization of technology: What remains of the product cycle model? Cambridge Journal of Economics, 19(1), 155–174.Google Scholar
  5. Cantwell, J. A., & Mudambi, R. (2005). MNE competence–creating subsidiary mandates. Strategic Management Journal, 26(12), 1109–1128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cantwell, J. A., & Zhang, Y. (2006). Why is Internationalization in Japanese firms so low? A path—dependent explanation. Asian Business and Management, 5, 249–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Creamer, D. B. (1976). Overseas Research and development by the US multinationals, 1966–1975; Estimates of expenditures and a statistical profile, New York, The Conference Board.Google Scholar
  8. Hayashi, T. (1989). Takokuseki kigyo to chiteki shoyuken (Multinational enterprise and intellectual property rights). Tokyo: Moriyamashoten.Google Scholar
  9. Hayashi, T. (2004). Globalization and networking of R&D activities by 19 electronics MNCs. In M. Serapio & T. Hayashi (Eds.), Internationalization of research and development and the emergence of global R&D networks (pp. 85–112). Oxford: Elesvier.Google Scholar
  10. Hayashi, T. (2007). Higashi ajia ni okeru kokkyo wo koeta komyuniti to chishiki kyoso no mekanizumu (Transnational community in East Asia and the knowledge co-creating mechanism). In T. Sakuma, T. Hayashi, & Y. Kaku (Eds.), Idousuru ajia (Moving Asia) (pp. 18–47, Chap. 1). Tokyo: Akashishoten.Google Scholar
  11. Hayashi, T. (2018). Kenkyu Kaihatsu Nouryoku No Kokusaiteki Saihensei: IBM No Keisu Wo Chusintosite (International Reorganization of R&D System: Focusing on the Case of IBM Corp.). Keieironso, 8(1), 85–108.Google Scholar
  12. Hayashi, T., & Serapio, M. (2006). Cross-border linkages in research and development: Evidence from 22 US Asian and European MNCs. Asian Business & Management, 5, 271–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hirota, T. (1985). Beikoku kigyou no kenkyu kaihatsu Kkatsudo to senryaku (R&D Activities and strategies of US companies). Kansai University Shougakuronshu, 30(4–5), 1–42.Google Scholar
  14. Hirota, T. (1986). Nihon to beikoku kigyou no gijutsu kaihatsu (Technology development of Japanese and US companies). Kansai Univ. Shougauronshu, 30(6), 1–67.Google Scholar
  15. Iguchi, C. (2011). Globalisation of R&D by TNC subsidiaries: The case of South-East Asian countries. Asian Business & Management, 11(1), 79–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Iwata, T. (1994). Kenkyu kaihatsu no gurobaruka (Globalization of research and development). Tokyo: Bunshindo.Google Scholar
  17. Iwata, T. (2007). Gurobaru inobeishon manejimento (Management of global innovation). Tokyo: Chuoukeizaisha.Google Scholar
  18. Komoda, F. (1987). Kokusai gijutsu iten no riron (Theory of international technology transfer). Tokyo: Yuhikaku.Google Scholar
  19. Kotabe, M., et al. (2007). Determinants of cross-national knowledge transfer and its effect on firm innovation. Journal of International Business Studies, 38, 259–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Leroy, G. P. (1978). Transfers of technology within the multinational enterprise. In M. Gehrtman & J. Leontiades (Eds.), European research in international business. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing.Google Scholar
  21. Mansfield, E., Romeo, A., et al. (1979). Foreign trade and US research and development. Review of Economics and Statistics, 61(1), 49–57.Google Scholar
  22. Mansfield, E., Romeo, A., et al. (1984). Reverse transfers of technology from overseas subsidiaries to American firms. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, EM (31)3, 122–127. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mansfield, E., Teece, D., et al. (1979). Overseas research and development by US based firms. Economica, 46, 187–196. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Medcof, J. (2001). Resource-based strategy and managerial power in networks of internationally dispersed technology units. Strategic Management Journal, 22(11), 999–1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. National Science Board, Science & Engineering Indicators. (2018).Google Scholar
  26. Patel, P., & Pavitt, K (1998). Uneven technological accumulation among advanced countries. In G. Dosi, D. J. Teece, & J. Chytry (Eds.), Technology, organization, and competitiveness (pp. 289–317). Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Pearce, R., & Singh, S. (1992). Globalizing research and development. London: MacMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Roberts, E. (2001). Benchmarking global strategic management of technology. Research Technology Management, 44(2), 2536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sana, M. (2010). Immigration and natives in US science and engineering occupations, 1994–2006. Demography, 47(3), 801–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Saxenian, A. (2005). From brain drain to brain circulation: Transnational communities and regional upgrading in India and China. Studies in Comparative International Development, 42(2), 35–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shanrokhi, M. (1984). Reverse licensing. Santa Barbara: Praeger.Google Scholar
  32. Song, J., Aasakawa, K., & Chu, Y. (2011). What determines knowledge sourcing from host locations of overseas R&D operations? A study of global R&D activities of Japanese multinationals. Research Policy, 40(3), 380–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Takahashi. (2000). Gurobaru R&D Nettowahk (Global Network of R&D). Tokyo: Bunshndo.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rikkyo UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Tokyo Fuji UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations