Blurred Boundaries, Shared Practices: Disaster Studies as an Emerging Discipline and Disaster Management as a Field of Practice

  • Janki AndhariaEmail author
Part of the Disaster Studies and Management book series (DSDM)


Concepts and vocabularies used to represent objects and processes are socially constructed by human beings and vary from one society (or culture) to another. “Scientific” accounts of disasters are produced by observers with differing degrees of educational training, research experience, perceptual capacities and ideational frameworks. Understanding how these varying cognitive elements interact to discursively shape that which we come to take as knowledge is the goal of post-positivism and transdisciplinarity is a strong invocation that moves in that direction and beyond. This chapter reviews the diversity of definitions of disaster, the way they are classified and traces the epistemological history of the definitions that shape the emerging discipline of disaster studies. It discusses the blurred boundaries between disaster studies as an emerging discipline and the practice of disaster management. Reflecting on disaster management as a profession, it critiques managerialism and its consequences. The final section engages critically with the notion of humanitarianism, closely linked with the idea of disaster management. Although conventionally regarded as a noble enterprise, humanitarianism is not unproblematic and is in fact, riddled with dilemmas and challenges.


  1. ADPC. (nd). Capacity building in Asia using IT applications. Available at:
  2. Albala-Bertrand, J. M. (1993). Political economy of large natural disasters: With special reference to developing countries. Oxford: OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, D. (1997). The study of natural disasters, 1977–1997: Some reflections on a changing field of knowledge. Disasters, 21(4), 284–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexander, D. E. (1993). Natural disasters. London: Taylor & Francis. [Comprehensive review of the physical, social and technological aspects of natural hazards].Google Scholar
  5. Allinson, R. E. (1993). Global disasters: Inquiries into management ethics. New York: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  6. Alvesson, M., & Willmott, H. (Eds.). (1992). Critical management studies. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  7. Anderson, M. (1996). Do no harm: Supporting local capacities for peace through aid. Cambridge, MA: The Collaborative for Development Action, Inc.Google Scholar
  8. Andharia, J. (2013). Vulnerability and disasters: Conceptual contours of a people-centered view. In India disasters report II—Redefining disasters. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Andharia, J. (2016). Interrogating the idea of a disaster, a report on the roundtable conference. Mumbai: JTCDM, TISS.Google Scholar
  10. Apte, A., & Yoho, K. D. (2011). Strategies for logistics in case of a natural disaster (No. NPS-LM-11-188). Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School, Graduate School of Business and Public Policy.Google Scholar
  11. Asgary, A. (2005). Theorizing disaster and emergency management and governance reform. In International Conference on Issues Relating to Disaster Management Challenges for Governance Reform in Asia, March 4–5. Hong Kong: School of Law City University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  12. Asgary, A. (2006). Theorizing disaster and emergency management. In Tsunami and disaster management: Law and governance (p. 42). Hong Kong: Thomson.Google Scholar
  13. Asian Development Bank. (2019, June 24). Asian Development Outlook (ADO) 2019: Strengthening disaster resilience. Available at:
  14. Bankoff, G. (2001). Rendering the world unsafe: ‘Vulnerability’ as western discourse. Disasters, 25(1), 19–35.
  15. Bankoff, G. (2004). Time is of the essence: Disasters, vulnerability, and history. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 22(03), 23–42.Google Scholar
  16. Barton, A. H. (1969). Communities in disaster: A sociological analysis of collective stress. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  17. Beck, U. (1992). Risk society—Towards a new modernity. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. Beck, U. (1995). Ecological politics in the age of risk. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  19. Beck, U. (1999). World risk society. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  20. Bell, M. (2000). American philanthropy, the Carnegie Corporation and poverty in South Africa. Journal of Southern African Studies, 26(3), 481–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Birkmann, J. (2007). Risk and vulnerability indicators at different scales: Applicability, usefulness and policy implications. Environmental Hazards, 7(1), 20–31.
  22. Blaikie, P. (1985). The political economy of soil erosion in developing countries. London, UK: Longman.Google Scholar
  23. Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., Davis, I., & Wisner, B. (1994). At risk: Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters (1st ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Blunt, A., & McEwan, C. (Eds.). (2003). Postcolonial geographies. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.Google Scholar
  25. Bolin, R., & Stanford, L. (1998). The northridge earthquake: Community-based approaches to unmet recovery needs. Disasters, 22(1), 21–38.Google Scholar
  26. Breau, S., & Samuel, K. (Eds.). (2016). Research handbook on disasters and international law. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  27. Browder, J. O. (1989). Fragile lands of Latin America. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  28. Cahill, K. M. (Ed.). (2003). Basics of international humanitarian missions. New York: Fordham University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Carlson, S. (1951). Executive behaviour. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International.Google Scholar
  30. Clarke, L. (1999). Mission improbable: Using fantasy documents to tame disaster. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  31. Clarke, L. (2006). Worst cases: Terror and catastrophe in the popular imagination. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  32. Cuny, F. C. (1983). Disasters and development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Cuny, F. C. (1992). Introduction to disaster management: Lesson 1: The scope of disaster management. Pre‐hospital and Disaster Medicine, 7(4), 400–409.Google Scholar
  34. Cutter, S. L. (1996). Vulnerability to environmental hazards. Progress in Human Geography, 20(4), 529–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cutter, S. L., Burton, C. G., & Emrich, C. T. (2010). Disaster resilience indicators for benchmarking baseline conditions. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 7(1).Google Scholar
  36. Daly, M. W. (2010). Darfur’s sorrow: The forgotten history of a humanitarian disaster. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Danziger, M. (1995). Policy analysis postmodernized: Some political and pedagogical ramifications. Policy Studies Journal, 23(3), 435–450.Google Scholar
  38. Dey, B., & Singh, R. B. (2006). Natural hazard and disaster management. Disaster and Emergency Reference Center.Google Scholar
  39. Diprizio, R. (1999). Adverse effects of humanitarian aid in complex emergencies. Small Wars and Insurgencies, 10(1).Google Scholar
  40. Disaster and Emergency Reference Center. (1998). Disaster Management Glossary, edited by Krisno Nimpuno. Delft, the Netherlands: Disaster and Emergency Reference Center.Google Scholar
  41. Disaster Management Act, 2003, State of Queensland. (2003).
  42. Drabek, T. E. (2004). Student Handout, 1–3 (p. 1).Google Scholar
  43. Dupuy, K. (2016). Trends in armed conflict, 1946–2015. Conflict Trends, 8. Available at:
  44. Dynes, R. R. (1998). Coming to terms with community disaster. What is a Disaster? (pp. 109–126).Google Scholar
  45. Dynes, R. R., & Drabek, T. E. (1994). The structure of disaster research: Its policy and disciplinary implications. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 12(1), 5–23.Google Scholar
  46. Eade, D. (2007). Capacity building: Who builds whose capacity? Development in Practice, 17(4–5), 630–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Escobar, A. (1995). Encountering development the making and unmaking of the third world. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Escobar, A. (1999). After nature. Steps to an antiessentialist political ecology. Current Anthropology, 40(1), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Esteva, G. (1992). Development. In: W. Sachs (Ed.), The development dictionary: A guide to knowledge as power (pp. 6–25). London: Zed Books Ltd.Google Scholar
  50. Etkin, D. (2015). Disaster theory an interdisciplinary approach to concepts and causes. Woburn, United States: Elsevier, Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  51. Faas, A. J. (2016). Disaster vulnerability in anthropological perspective. Annals of Anthropological Practice, 40(1).Google Scholar
  52. Farazmand, A. (Ed.). (2001). Handbook of crisis and emergency management. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  53. French, R., & Grey, C. (Eds.). (1996). Rethinking management education. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  54. Freud, S. (1927). The future of an illusion. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  55. Furedi, F. (2007). The changing meaning of disaster. Area, 39(4), 482–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gerber, B. J. (2007). Disaster management in the United States: Examining key political and policy challenges. Policy Studies Journal, 35(2), 227–238. Available at:
  57. Global Humanitarian Overview. (2019). United Nations office for the coordination of humanitarian affairs. Available at:
  58. Grey, C. (1996a). Towards a critique of managerialism: The contribution of Simone Weil. Journal of Management Studies, 33(5), 591–612.Google Scholar
  59. Grey, C. (1996b). Critique and renewal in management education: Introduction. Management Learning, 27(1), 9–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Grey, C., & Mitev, N. (1995). Management education: A polemic. Management Leaming, 26(1), 73–90.Google Scholar
  61. Guha-Sapir, D., & D’aoust, O. (2011). Demographic and health consequences of civil conflict: Background paper in World Development Report 2011: Conflict, security and development. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  62. Guha-Sapir, D., Vos, F., Below, R., & Ponserre, S. (2011). Annual disaster statistical review 2010: The numbers and trends. Brussels: CRED; Ciaco Imprimerie, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Available at
  63. Hankivsky, O. (2014). Intersectionality 101 (pp. 1–34). Vancouver: The Institute for Intersectionality Research & Policy, SFU.Google Scholar
  64. Hannigan, J. A. (2012). Disasters without borders: The international politics of natural disasters. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  65. Henstra, D., & McBean, G. (2005). Canadian disaster management policy: Moving toward a paradigm shift? Canadian Public Policy [Analyse de Politiques], 303–318.Google Scholar
  66. Hewitt, K. (1983). Interpretation of calamity from the viewpoint of human ecology. Geographical Review, 74. 10.2307/214106.
  67. Hewitt, K. (1995). Excluded perspectives in the social construction of disasters. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 13(3), 317–319.Google Scholar
  68. Hilhorst, D. (2003). Responding to disasters: Diversity of bureaucrats, technocrats and local people. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 21(1), 37–55.Google Scholar
  69. Hilhorst, D. (Ed.). (2013). Disaster, conflict and society in crisis everyday politics of crisis response (pp. 1–15). London and New York: Routledge Humanitarian Studies.Google Scholar
  70. Hillier, D., & Nightingale, K. (2013). How disasters disrupt development recommendations for the post-2015 development framework. Available at
  71. Hoetmer, G. J., & Drabek, T. E. (1991). Emergency management: Principles and practice for local government (p. 3). Washington DC: ICMA.Google Scholar
  72. Horlick-Jones, T. (1995). Modern disasters as outrage and betrayal. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 13(3), 305–315.Google Scholar
  73. Horlick-Jones, T., & Peters, G. (1991a). Measuring disaster trends part one: Some observations on the bradford fatality scale. Disaster Management, 3(3), 144–148.Google Scholar
  74. Horlick-Jones, T., & Peters, G. (1991b). Measuring disaster trends part two: Statistics and underlying processes. Disaster Management, 4(1), 41–45.Google Scholar
  75. Izadkhah, Y. O., & Hosseini, M. (2008, October). Using proactive means in reducing vulnerability to natural disasters. In Proceedings of the 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China. Available at:
  76. Jabeen, H., Johnson, C., & Allen, A. (2010). Built-in resilience: Learning from grassroots coping strategies for climate variability. Environment and Urbanization, 22(2), 415–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jennings, S. (2011). Time’s bitter flood: Trends in the number of reported natural disasters. Oxfam Policy and Practice: Climate Change and Resilience, 7(1), 115–147.Google Scholar
  78. Kelly, C. (1996). Limitations to the use of military resources for foreign disaster assistance. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 5(1), 22–29.Google Scholar
  79. Kelly, P. M., & Adger, W. N. (2000). Theory and practice in assessing vulnerability to climate change and facilitating adaption. Climate Change, 47, 325–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kreps, G. (1995). Disasters as systemic event and social catalyst: A clarification of the subject matter. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 13(3), 255–284.Google Scholar
  81. Kreps, G. (1998). Disaster as systemic event and social catalyst (Chapter 4). In E. L. Quarantelli (Ed.), What is a disaster? London and NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  82. Kroll-Smith, J., & Couch, S. (1991). What is a disaster? An ecological symbolic approach to resolving the definitional debate. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 9(3), 355–366.Google Scholar
  83. Kushwaha, P. (2008). Disaster studies and development: A critical view of India’s disaster management framework. JTCDM Working Paper, TISS, Mumbai.Google Scholar
  84. Leaning, J., & Guha-Sapir, D. (2013). Natural disasters, armed conflict, and public health. New England Journal of Medicine, 369(19), 1836–1842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lindell, M. K. (2011). Disaster studies. sociopedia.isa, 4–176. Available at:
  86. Lindell, M. K. (2013). Disaster studies. Current Sociology61(5–6), 797–825. Available at:
  87. Lindell, M. K., Perry, R. W. (2004). Communicating environmental risk in multiethnic communities. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  88. Lindlof, T. R., & Taylor, B. C. (2002). Qualitative communication research methods (2nd ed., p. 52). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications.Google Scholar
  89. Lystbaek, C. T. (2012). Managing managerialism in management and management studies. Paper presented at the 11th IFSAM conference, Limerick, Ireland, 28 June.Google Scholar
  90. Macdonald, N., Chester, D., Sangster, H., Todd, B., & Hooke, J. (2011). The significance of Gilbert F. White’s 1945 paper ‘Human adjustment to floods’ in the development of risk and hazard management. Progress in Physical Geography 1–9.Google Scholar
  91. Macrae, J., & Zwi, A. (1994). War and hunger: Rethinking international responses to complex emergencies. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  92. Marcus, M. (2002). Humanitarian intervention without borders: Belligerent occupation or colonization? Houston Journal of Humanitarian Law, 25(1).Google Scholar
  93. Maskrey, A. (1989). Disaster mitigation: A community-based approach. Oxford: Oxfam International.Google Scholar
  94. McConnell, A., & Drennan, L. (2006). Mission impossible? Planning and preparing for crisis. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 14(2), 59–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. McEntire, D. A. (2001). Triggering agents, vulnerabilities and disaster reduction: Towards a holistic paradigm. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 10(3), 189–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. McEntire, D. A., Fuller, C., Johnston, C. W., & Weber, R. (2002). A comparison of disaster paradigms: The search for a holistic policy guide. Public Administration Review, 62(3), 267–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Michigan Department of State Police. (1998). Local emergency management standards. EMD PUB – 206. November 1998. Emergency Management Division. [pdf]. Available online:
  98. Mitchell, J. T., & Cutter, S. L. (1997). Global change and environmental hazards: Is the world becoming more disastrous? Association of American Geographers.Google Scholar
  99. Moran, E. F. (Ed.). (1990). The ecosystem approach in anthropology: From concept to practice Ann Arbor. MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  100. Mowforth, M. (2014). The violence of development: Resource depletion, environmental crises and human rights abuses in central America (p. 174). London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  101. Mukherjee, S. (2014). Extra terrestrial remote sensing and geophysical applications to understand Kedarnath cloudburst in Uttarakhand, India. Journal of Geophysics and Remote Sensing, 3(3).Google Scholar
  102. NASA Earth Observatory. (2019). Overlooked landslides. Available at
  103. Oliver-Smith, A. (1996). Anthropological research on hazards and disasters. Annual Review of Anthropology, 25, 303–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Oliver-Smith, A. (1998). Disaster as systemic event and social catalyst. In E. L. Quarantelli (Ed.), What is a disaster? (pp. 177–194). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  105. Oliver-Smith, A. (2013). Theorizing vulnerability in a globalized world: A political ecological perspective. In Mapping vulnerability (pp. 29–43). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  106. Palliyaguru, R., Amaratunga, D., & Baldry, D. (2014). Constructing a holistic approach to disaster risk reduction: The significance of focusing on vulnerability reduction. Disasters, 38(1), 45–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Paulraj, J., & Andharia, J. (2015). Resilience of indigenous peoples to disasters: An exploration of practices of Konyak community, Nagaland. European Scientific Journal.Google Scholar
  108. Peacock, W. G., & Ragsdale, A. K. (1997). Social systems, ecological networks and disasters. In W. G. Peacock, B. H. Morrow and J. Gladwin (Eds.), Hurricane Andrew: Ethnicity, gender and the sociology of disasters. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  109. Pearce, L. D. R. (2000). An integrated approach for community hazard, impact, risk and vulnerability analysis: HIRV (Doctoral dissertation). University of British Columbia.Google Scholar
  110. Pelling, M. (1999). The political ecology of flood hazard in urban Guyana. Geoforum, 30(3), 249–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Perrow, C. (1984). Normal accidents: Living with high risk technologies. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  112. Perry, R. W., & Quarantelli, E. L. (2005). What is a disaster? New answers to old questions. Bloomington: Xlibris Corporation.Google Scholar
  113. Porfiriev, B. (1995). Disaster and disaster areas: Methodological issues of definition and delineation. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 13, 285–304.Google Scholar
  114. Prendergast, J. (1996). Frontline diplomacy: Humanitarian aid and conflict in Africa. London: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  115. Pyles, L., Svistova, J., & Ahn, S. (2017). Securitization, racial cleansing, and disaster capitalism: Neoliberal disaster governance in the US Gulf Coast and Haiti. Critical Social Policy, 37(4), 582–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Quarantelli, E. L. (1987). Disaster studies: An analysis of the social historical factors affecting the development of research in the area.Google Scholar
  117. Quarantelli, E. L. (1998). What is a disaster? Perspectives on the question. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  118. Quarantelli, E. L. (1999). Implications for programmes and policies from future disaster trends. Risk Management, 1(1), 9–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Quarantelli E. L. (2001). Disaster planning, emergency management and civil protection: The historical development of organised efforts to plan for and to respond to dsasters. Unpublished manuscript, held at Disaster Resaerch Cenre, University of Delware, Newark. Available at:
  120. Riesner, M. (1993). Cadillac desert: The American West and its disappearing water. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  121. Roncoli, C., Jost, C., Kirshen, P., Sanon, M., Ingram, K. T., Woodin, M., et al. (2009). From accessing to assessing forecasts: An end-to-end study of participatory climate forecast dissemination in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Climatic Change, 92(3), 433–460.Google Scholar
  122. Sachs, W. (1992). The development dictionary: A guide to knowledge as power. London: Atlantic Highlands.Google Scholar
  123. Salita, M. (2004). Shuttle disasters: A common cause? Aerospace America, 42(3), 41–43.Google Scholar
  124. Salter, J. (1997-98) Risk management in the emergency management context. The Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 12(4) (Summer 1997–1998).Google Scholar
  125. Sánchez, D. (2004). Interventions humanitaires? Alternatives Sud, 11, 3.Google Scholar
  126. Saraçoğlu, C., & Demirtaş-Milz, N. (2014). Disasters as an ideological strategy for governing neoliberal urban transformation in Turkey: Insights from Izmir/Kadifekale. Disasters, 38(1), 178–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Shaw, R., & Krishnamurthy, R. R. (2009). Disaster management: An overview. In R. Shaw (Ed.), Disaster management: Global challenges & local solution. Hyderabad: University Press India Pvt. Ltd.Google Scholar
  128. Smith, G. (1993). Relief operations and military strategy. In Humanitarianism across borders: Sustaining civilians in times of war. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  129. Stallings, A. R. (2002). Weberian sociology and sociological disaster studies. Sociological Forum, 17(2), 281–305.Google Scholar
  130. Stallings, Robert A. (1998). “Disaster and the Theory of Social Order.” Pp. 127-145 in What is a Disaster?. edited by E.L. Quarantelli. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  131. Stenchion, P. (1997). Development and disaster management. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 12(3), 40–44.Google Scholar
  132. Stonich, S. C. (1993). I am destroying the land: The political ecology of poverty and environmental destruction in Honduras. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  133. The Johns Hopkins and Red Cross Red Crescent public health guide in emergencies (2nd ed.). (2008). Available at:
  134. Thomalla, F., Downing, T., Spanger-Siegfried, E., Han, G., & Rockström, J. (2006). Reducing hazard vulnerability: Towards a common approach between disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation. Disasters, 30(1), 39–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Tierney, K. J. (1999, June). Toward a critical sociology of risk. In Sociological forum (Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 215–242). USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
  136. Tierney, K. J., Lindell, M. K., & Perry, R. W. (2001). Conceptualizing disasters and their impacts. In Facing the unexpected: Disaster preparedness and response in the United States (pp. 1–25). Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.Google Scholar
  137. Timms, B. F. (2011). The (mis)use of disaster as opportunity: Coerced relocation from Celaque National Park, Honduras. Antipode, 43(4), 1357–1379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Twigg, J. (2008). Disaster management and disaster risk reduction. Lecture at the Institute of Development Studies in Brighton, United Kingdom, May 2.Google Scholar
  139. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Secretariat. (2011). Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2011:  Revealing risk, redefining development. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction.Google Scholar
  140. Vaux, T. (2006). Humanitarian trends and dilemmas. Development in Practice, 16(3–4), 240–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Warfield, C. (nd). The disaster management cycle. Available at:
  142. Weil, S. (1988 [1933]). Oppression and liberty. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  143. Weiss, T., & Collins, C. (1996). Humanitarian challenges and intervention: World politics and the dilemmas of help. Boulder: Westview.Google Scholar
  144. White, S. C. (2010). Analysing wellbeing: A framework for development practice. Development in Practice, 20(2), 158–172.Google Scholar
  145. White, S. C., & Blackmore, C. (Eds.) (2016) Cultures of wellbeing - method, place, policy. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  146. Wickramaratne, S., Ruwanpura, J., Ranasinghe, U., Walawe, S., Adhikariwattege, V., & Wirasinghe, S. (2012). Ranking of natural disasters in Sri Lanka for mitigation planning. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 3(2), 115–132.Google Scholar
  147. Williams, S. (2008). Rethinking the nature of disaster: From failed instruments of learning to a post-social understanding. Social Forces, 87(2), 1115–1138.Google Scholar
  148. Wisner, B., Gaillard, J. C., & Kelman, I. (Eds.). (2012). Handbook of hazards and disaster risk reduction. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  149. Yodamani, S. (nd). Disaster risk management and vulnerability reduction: Protecting the poor. Paper presented at The Asia and Pacific Forum on Poverty, Asian Development Bank. Available at:
  150. Zachary, G. (2008). Humanitarian dilemmas. The Wilson Quarterly, 32(3), 44–51. Retrieved from
  151. Zinn, J. O. (2008). Introduction: The contribution of sociology to the discourse on risk and uncertainty. In J. O. Zinn (Ed.), Social theories of risk and uncertainty: An introduction (pp. 1–17). Victoria: Blackwell.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tata Institute of Social SciencesMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations