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Growth and Development Dynamics in Agronomic Crops Under Environmental Stress

  • Syed Asad Hussain BukhariEmail author
  • Arslan Masood Peerzada
  • Muhammad Haseeb Javed
  • Muhammad Dawood
  • Nazim Hussain
  • Shakeel AhmadEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Plants are exposed to different kinds of adverse environmental conditions during their life cycle that ablate their productivity. These environmental fluctuations have detrimental effects on the crops in terms of growth and development. Plants are highly susceptible to abiotic stresses including drought, salinity, high temperature, and increasing heavy metal concentration. The changing events related to climatic conditions are the signs of consternation for crops to maintain their productivity. Due to global warming, drought and high temperature are serious concerns regarding effective crop production. Salinity also adversely affects growth and productivity by disrupting normal physiology and biochemistry of plants. It causes osmotic disturbance, nutritional imbalance, malfunction of photosynthetic machinery, and oxidative stress. Rapid urbanization and industrialization are polluting the arable lands with heavy metals which not only affects crop productivity but also interferes with human health. In the modern era, heavy metals, like lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, and copper are main environmental hazards, especially in regions of higher anthropogenic activity. Contamination of agricultural soils with heavy metals is a serious concern owing to its deleterious effects on agricultural productivity, phytotoxicity, food safety, and quality of the environment with ultimate impact on human health. All these abiotic stresses negatively affect several growth and developmental processes of plants which reduce the productivity of agronomic crop and also deteriorate the quality of produce. To cope with the situation, it is inevitable to understand the adverse effects of these abiotic factors on crop plants. This chapter provides comprehensive information on the impacts of abiotic stresses on crop plants.

Keywords

Abiotic stress Drought Salinity Climate change Heavy metals 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Syed Asad Hussain Bukhari
    • 1
    Email author
  • Arslan Masood Peerzada
    • 2
  • Muhammad Haseeb Javed
    • 1
  • Muhammad Dawood
    • 3
  • Nazim Hussain
    • 1
  • Shakeel Ahmad
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of AgronomyBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan
  2. 2.School of Agriculture and Food Sciences (SAFS)University of QueenslandGattonAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Environmental SciencesBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan

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