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Advanced Production Technology and Processing of Jute

  • Md Mahbubul Islam
Chapter

Abstract

Jute (Corchorus spp.) is a kind of fiber which is obtained from two species Corchorus capsularis L. and Corchorus olitorius L. (annual and short day plants) of the genus Corchorus belonging to the family Tiliaceae. It is one of the most cheapest and economical vegetable fiber after cotton obtained from the skin or bast of plant’s stem. Recyclable, 100% biodegradable, and ecofriendly jute has low extensibility and high tensile strength. Jute is the versatile natural fiber widely used as a raw material in many textile, nontextile, packaging, construction, and agricultural applications. It has been used since ancient times in Africa and Asia to provide a cordage and weaving fiber from the stem and food from the leaves. Several historical documents (Ain-e-Akbari by Abul Fazal in 1590) during the era of the great Mughal Emperor Akbar (1542–1605) states that the poor villagers of India used to wear clothes made of jute. Jute is grown in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Brazil, and some other countries. It can be grown in any intermediate soil other than the extreme sand and extreme clay soil. Jute crop is attacked by various diseases and insects under field conditions. Stem-rot, anthracnose, wilting, soft-rot, dieback, black-band, and powdery mildew are the common fungal diseases of jute. Hairy caterpillar, semilooper, stem weevil, yellow mite, and the indigo caterpillar are the major pest of jute. Jute-based cropping patterns are Jute-T.aman-Wheat, Jute-T. aman-Potato, Jute-T.aman-Potato+Amaranthus, etc. are usually practiced. Quality of jute fiber has direct relationship with the stage of harvest. The plants usually harvested at the early flowering stage in order to obtain good-quality fiber are really in greater demand. There are two stages of grading jute fiber, one for the home trade and another for the export trade. Grading factors for jute are color, length, firmness of fiber, luster, strength, clearness, freedom from defects, and the amounts of root end which will have to be cut off. The national average yield of jute fiber is 2.07 t.ha−1. However, with improved package of practices, it is possible to get 2.5–3.5 t.ha−1 of fiber. Normally jute stick yields double than fiber. The average total variable cost (TVC) per hectare was calculated to Tk. 79,541; the average total cash cost (TCC) per hectare was about 69% of the TVC, amounting to Tk. 55,616 in the case of tossa jute production at farm level.

Keywords

Jute Corchorus capsularis L. Corchorus olitorius L. Cultivation methods Diseases and insects management Harvesting Postharvest processing Retting Rebbon retting Fibre grading Cultivation cost 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Md Mahbubul Islam
    • 1
  1. 1.Agronomy DivisionBangladesh Jute Research InstituteDhakaBangladesh

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