Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease

  • Jining Wu
  • Wenjin Liu
  • Hongdi CaoEmail author


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In addition to the traditional risk factors associated with the condition, uremic toxins may contribute directly to the pathogenesis of CVD in patients with CKD. Because of the multifactorial pathogenesis, treating patients with CKD and concomitant CVD is challenging. Treatable factors such as anemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, and hyperparathyroidism cannot completely explain the broad spectrum of CVD observed in this patient population. To date, no study has identified effective drug therapy to control cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CKD.


  1. 1.
    House AA. Cardio-renal syndrome type 4: epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment. Semin Nephrol. 2012;32(1):40–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tonelli M, Karumanchi SA, Thadhani R. Epidemiology and mechanisms of uremia-related cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2016;133(5):518–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wanner C, Amann K, Shoji T. The heart and vascular system in dialysis. Lancet. 2016;388(10041):276–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Colbert G, Jain N. de Lemos JA etc. utility of traditional circulating and imaging-based cardiac biomarkers in patients with predialysis CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;10(3):515–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wang AY, Wai-Kei Lam C. The diagnostic utility of cardiac biomarkers in dialysis patients. Semin Dial. 2012;25(4):388–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liu X, Xu X. Shang R etc. asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) as an important risk factor for the increased cardiovascular diseases and heart failure in chronic kidney disease. Nitric Oxide. 2018;78:113–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liu W, Wang L, Sun Z, et al. Masked uncontrolled hypertension in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Hypertens Res. 2017;40(9):819–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hirata Y, Sugiyama S, Yamamoto E, et al. Endothelial function and cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease. Int J Cardiol. 2014;173(3):481–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Flammer AJ, Anderson T, Celermajer DS, et al. The assessment of endothelial function: from research into clinical practice. Circulation. 2012;126(6):753–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Townsend RR, Anderson AH, Chirinos JA, et al. Association of Pulse Wave Velocity with Chronic Kidney Disease Progression and Mortality: findings from the CRIC study (chronic renal insufficiency cohort). Hypertension. 2018;71(6):1101–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liu W, Meng M, Chen J, et al. Reactive hyperemia index in patients on maintenance hemodialysis: cross-sectional data from a cohort study. Sci Rep. 2017;7:45757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Georgianos PI, Agarwal R. Pharmacotherapy of hypertension in chronic Dialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016;11(11):2062–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    James S, Budaj A, Aylward P, et al. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in acute coronary syndromes in relation to renal function: results from the platelet inhibition and patient outcomes (PLATO) trial. Circulation. 2010;122(11):1056–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    McMurray JJ, Packer M, Desai AS. Etc. angiotensin-neprilysin inhibition versus enalapril in heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(11):993–1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Kidney DiseaseSecond Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations