Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In addition to the traditional risk factors associated with the condition, uremic toxins may contribute directly to the pathogenesis of CVD in patients with CKD. Because of the multifactorial pathogenesis, treating patients with CKD and concomitant CVD is challenging. Treatable factors such as anemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, and hyperparathyroidism cannot completely explain the broad spectrum of CVD observed in this patient population. To date, no study has identified effective drug therapy to control cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CKD.