Advertisement

Hemodialysis

  • Hong Ye
  • Hao Ding
  • Wei Gan
  • Ping WenEmail author
  • Yang Zhou
  • Hongdi Cao
  • Weichun He
Chapter

Abstract

Hemodialysis (HD) sustains life for more than millions of people worldwide, without which most would die within a few weeks. The life-sustaining treatment depends on an extracorporeal blood device and requires caregivers to in-depth process detailed aspects of dialysis procedure in addition to an understanding of the pathophysiology of the uremic state. Patients with end-stage kidney disease routinely relies on HD to preserve life since half a century ago. Several early pioneers deserve to be remembered for laying the foundation for HD, which had become technically feasible nowadays. The government approval of public funding for HD made the life-sustaining kidney replacement available for virtually all patients. In this chapter, we review the physical, chemical, and clinical principles of HD as they relate closely to the treatment of uremia patients and the complications associated with HD. The descriptions of other replacement therapies, such as transplantation and peritoneal dialysis, are reviewed in the following chapters.

References

  1. 1.
    Brenner & Rector’s the kidney. Chapter 65. 9th ed. 2012.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Himmelfarb J. Chronic kidney disease, dialysis, and transplantation. Chapter 20. 3rd ed. 2010.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahmad S. Manual of clinical dialysis. Chapter 1 and 2. 2nd ed. 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Larry Jameson J. Harrison’s nephrology and acid-base disorders. Chapter 12. 2nd ed. 2013.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kallenbach JZ. Review of HD for nurses and dialysis personnel. Chapter 18. 9th ed. 2015.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Golper TA, et al. HD: core curriculum 2014. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014;63:153–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arieff AI. Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome: current concepts on pathogens is and prevention. Kidney Int. 1994;45:629–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    So Metz F, Mir S, Tutuncuoglu S. Potential prophylactic use of benzodiazepines for hemodialysis-associated seizures. Pediatr Nephrol. 2000;14:367–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Canzanello VJ, Burkart JM. Hemodialysis-associated muscle cramps. Semin Dial. 1992;5:299–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Canzanello VJ, Hylander-Rossner B, Sands RE, et al. Comparison of 50% dextrose water, 25% mannitol, and 23.5% saline for the treatment of hemodialysis-associated muscle cramps. ASAIO Trans. 1991;37:649–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cruz DN, Mahnensmith RL, Perazella MA. Intradialytic hypotension: is midodrine beneficial in symptomatic hemodialysis patients? Am J Kidney Dis. 1997;30(6):772–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Daugirdas JT, Ing TS. First use reactions during hemodialysis: a definition of subtypes. Kidney Int. 1988;24:S37–43.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pezerella M. Pharmacologic options available to treat symptomatic intradialytic hypotension. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;38(Suppl 4):S26–36.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liyanage T, et al. Worldwide access to treatment for end stage kidney disease: a systematic review. Lancet. 2015;385(9981):1975–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD Work Group. KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kindey Int. 2013; 3(Suppl): 1–150.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI clinical practice guidelines and clinical practice recommendations for 2006 updates: HD adequacy 2006, peritoneal dialysis adequacy 2006, and vascular access. Am J Kidney Dis. 2006;48(Suppl 1):S1–322.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Woo K, Lok CE. New insights into dialysis vascular access: what is the optimal vascular access type and timing of access creation in CKD and dialysis patients? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016;11:1487–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lazrak HH, René É, Elftouh N, Leblanc M, Lafrance JP. Safety of low-molecular-weight heparin compared to unfractionated heparin in hemodialysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Nephrol. 2017;18:187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Santo M, Valentina P, Luigi T, Enrico F. Regional citrate anticoagulation for RRTs in critically ill patients with AKI. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;9:2173–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lowrie EG, Laird NM, Parker TF, Sargent JA. Effect of the HD prescription on patient morbidity. N Engl J Med. 1981;305:1176–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Eknoyan G, Beck GJ, Cheung AK, et al. Effect of dialysis dose and membrane flux in maintenance HD. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:2010–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Locatelli F, Martin-Malo A, Hannedouche T, Loureiro A, Papadimitriou M, Wizemann V, Jacobson SH, Czekalski S, Ronco C, Vanholder R. Membrane Permeability Outcome (MPO) Study Group. Effect of membrane permeability on survival of HD patients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:645–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hong Ye
    • 1
  • Hao Ding
    • 1
  • Wei Gan
    • 1
  • Ping Wen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yang Zhou
    • 1
  • Hongdi Cao
    • 1
  • Weichun He
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Kidney DiseaseSecond Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations