Application of Arbuscular Mycorrhizae in Soil Management
An arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungus associates with plant by penetrating the root cells and enabling the plants to use various nutrients present in the soil. AM fungi help plants in phosphate absorption, and plants provide nutrition support to the fungus in the form of hexoses. Recently, in the presence of AM fungi, the degradation of organic pollutants and metals has been observed, and AM bioremediation is also a relevant technique for remediation of contamination sites. There are three types of bioremediation: microbial, mycoremediation, and phytoremediation. Among this, phytoremediation is most common. It involves degradation of the toxicants, and those toxicants are accumulated in the plants (which is called phytoextraction) from the soil or the toxicants can be converted into a nontoxic form and immobilized in the root surface (phytostabilization). AMF association with the plants can be explored in remediation of organic pollutants, sites which are polluted by heavy metals, radionuclides, PAH-polluted soils, and bioassay for soil pollution.
KeywordsArbuscular mycorrhiza Mycoremediation Degradation Bioremediation Phytostabilization
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