The Philippine–American War, 1899–1913, and the US Counterinsurgency and Pacification Campaign
This chapter discusses the consolidation of the US colonial rule, continuing the pattern of using ruse and force against the Filipino resistance fighters but especially against the Muslims of Moroland. Throughout the process of counterinsurgency, application of ruthless violence—noted by San Juan, recalling Mark Twain’s satirical essay as among the most brutal in all of the colonial world—has been methodical, remorseless, and justified by the belief in a racial hierarchy wherein the Filipinos, including the Moros, were deemed as savages, incapable of self-government, and in need of “civilization.” Notes from San Juan indicate that the US acquisition of the Philippines, far from being benign, has actually sprung from the imperative of capital accumulation, and that colonial policies have set the stage for a clientelist Philippine–US relations, the continuing conflict in Moroland, and the diaspora under the neoliberal division of labor designed to extract surplus value from former colonies through unequal exchange.
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