Factors Influencing Household Expenditure on Private Tutoring in Higher Education

  • Anuneeta Mitra
  • Nivedita Sarkar


In the wake of higher education experiencing massive expansion, GER (Gross Enrolment Ratio) being 25.8%, on the one hand, and numerous anomalies like deteriorating teaching-learning quality, on the other, have led to the mushrooming of private coaching. It has, in turn, contributed in magnifying distortions in the realm of higher education, further eroding its public good nature. In this context, this chapter draws from NSS 71st round unit-level records, schedule 25.2, pertaining to Social Consumption: Education (2014–15) and makes an attempt to capture the pattern and cost (at the household level) of private coaching in India for higher educated individuals pertaining to the age group 18–23 years across social groups, gender, location, type of institutions and MPCE quintiles. Then, it eventually captures various social, economic, educational and locational factors influencing household expenditure on private coaching using a Tobit model for the entire country, which has been further disaggregated at the level of rural and urban sectors.


Private coaching higher education Tobit patterns of cost 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anuneeta Mitra
    • 1
  • Nivedita Sarkar
    • 2
  1. 1.Researcher, Centre for Policy Research in Higher Education, NIEPANew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Ambedkar UniversityNew DelhiIndia

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