Seed-Borne Diseases of Important Oilseed Crops: Symptomatology, Aetiology and Economic Importance

  • P. P. Thirumalaisamy
  • K. S. Jadon
  • P. Sharma


Annual oilseed crops in India occupy an area of 27 million ha with the production of about 30 million tonnes. More than 70% of the oilseed cultivation occurs in resource-poor rainfed areas and is prone to several seed-borne diseases, which lead to low productivity. The reduction in seed germination due to seed rot and seedling mortality reduces the plant population level to below optimum; besides seed-borne pathogens contaminate the areas which were disease-free previously. Seed-borne diseases due to presence of pathogen either internally or externally on seed or on vegetative propagating materials or as concomitant contamination are potential threat to cultivation of annual edible oilseed crops. This chapter deals about symptomatology, aetiology and economic importance of seed-borne diseases of cultivated annual edible oilseeds, viz. peanut (groundnut), sesame, soybean, rapeseed-mustard, sunflower and safflower.


  1. Abbas HK, Barrentine WL (1995) Alternaria helianthi and imazaquin for control of inazaquin susceptible and resistant cocklebur biotypes. Weed Sci 43:425–428Google Scholar
  2. Adams DB, Kuhn CW (1977) Seed transmission of Peanut mottle virus in peanuts. Phytopathology 67:1126–1129Google Scholar
  3. Agarwal PC, Dev U, Singh B et al (2006) Seed-borne fungi detected in germplasm of Sesamum indicum L. introduced into India during last three decades. Indian J Microbiol 46:161–164Google Scholar
  4. Agrios GN (2005) Plant pathology, 5th edn. Elsevier Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Ajmal M, Akram A, Ara A et al (2016) Stem histopathology of sesame seedlings infected with Alternaria alternata. Microsc Res 4:11–19Google Scholar
  6. Akem CN, Dashiell KE (1994) Effect of planting date on severity of frogeye leaf spot and grain yield of soybeans. Crop Prot 13:607–610Google Scholar
  7. Alexandrov V, Koteva V (2001) Attack on sunflower by charcoal rot (Sclerotium bataticola T.) under the influence of climate and mineral fertilization. Bulgarian J Agric Sci 7:271–274Google Scholar
  8. Arafa MKH, Hassan MHA, Abdel-Sater MA (2000) Sunflower seed discolouration and its relation to seed quality, mycotoxin production and emergence damping-off. Assiut J Agric Sci 31:231–247Google Scholar
  9. Arnott HJ, Smith KM (1967) Electron microscopy of virus-infected sunflower leaves. J Ultrastructure Res 19:173–195Google Scholar
  10. Athow KL (1987) Fungal diseases. In: Wilcox JR (ed) Soybeans: Improvement, production, and uses, Agron. Monogr. 16 ASA, 2nd edn. CSSA, SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 687–727Google Scholar
  11. Atwal AK, Ramandeep MSK et al (2003) Biochemical changes in relation to Alternaria leaf blight in Indian mustard. Plant Dis Res 19:57–59Google Scholar
  12. Aujla SS (1971) Further studies on pathogenesis in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fries. Ph.D. Thesis (Plant Pathology), Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, p 118Google Scholar
  13. Aulakh KS, Sandhu RS (1970) Reactions of groundnut varieties against Aspergillus niger. Plant Dis Rep 54:337Google Scholar
  14. Bakhetia DRC (1983) Control of white grub (Holotrichia consenguinea) and collar rot (Aspergillus niger) of groundnut sown in different dates in Punjab. Indian J Agric Sci 53(9):846–850Google Scholar
  15. Bashir M, Ahmad Z, Murata N (2000) Seed-borne viruses: detection, identification and control. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, National Agricultural Research Center, IslamabadGoogle Scholar
  16. Bedigian D (2003) Evolution of sesame revisited: domestication, diversity and prospects. Genet Resour Crop Evol 50:779–787Google Scholar
  17. Begum MM, Sariah M, Puteh AB et al (2007) Detection of seed-borne fungi and site of infection by Colletotrichum truncatum in naturally-infected soybean seeds. Int J Agric Res 2:812–819Google Scholar
  18. Begum MM, Sariah M, Puteh AB et al (2008) Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum truncatum and its influence. Int J Agric Biol 10:393–398Google Scholar
  19. Begum MM, Sariah M, Puteh AB et al (2010) Field performance of bio-primed seeds to suppress Colletotrichum truncatum causing damping-off and seedling stand of soybean. Biol Control 53:18–23Google Scholar
  20. Bernaux P (1979) Identification of some of some soybean diseases in Cameroon. Agron Trop 34:301–304Google Scholar
  21. Bhale MS, Bhale U, Khare MN (1998) Disease of important oilseed crops and their management. In: Paul Khurana SM (ed) Pathological problems of economic crop plants and their management. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, pp 251–279Google Scholar
  22. Burns EE (1974) Proceedings of 4th safflower and other oilseeds research conference. Fresno California 1974. p 35–41Google Scholar
  23. Chakrabarti DK (1979) Pathogenic and cultural variation of the safflower wilt-organism Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. carthami. Proc Indian Natl Sci Acad B 45:383–386Google Scholar
  24. Chattopadhyay C, Agrawal R, Kumar A et al (2011) Epidemiology and development of forecasting models for white rust of B. juncea in India. Arch Phytopath Plant Protect 44:751–763Google Scholar
  25. Chattopadhyay C, Kolte SJ, Waliyar F (2015) Diseases of edible oilseed crops. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  26. Chohan JS (1972) Final Progress Report, ICAR Scheme for research on important disease of groundnut in the Punjab for the period 1957–1667. Department of Plant Pathology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, p 117Google Scholar
  27. Chohan JS (1974) Recent advances in diseases of groundnut in India. In: Raychanduri SP, Verma JP (eds) Current trends in plant pathology. Lucknow University, Lucknow, pp 171–184Google Scholar
  28. Chohan JS, Sandhu RS, Dalal JL (1970) Screening of world collection of groundnut (Arachis hypogaes L.) germplasm for resistance to collar rot disease caused by Aspergillus niger van Tieghem in Punjab. Indian J Agric Sci 40:546–551Google Scholar
  29. Coffey MD (1975) Ultrastructural features of the haustorial apparatus of the white blister fungus Albugo candida. Can J Bot 53:1285–1299Google Scholar
  30. Csondes I, Cseh A, Taller J et al (2012) Genetic diversity and effect of temperature and pH on the growth of isolates from sunflower fields in Hungary. Mol Biol Rep 39:3259–3269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cvjetkovic B (2008) Sunflower downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii (Farlow) Berl.). [Croatian]. Glasilo Biljne Zastite 8:353–356Google Scholar
  32. Damodaran T, Hegde DM (2007) Oilseeds situation: a statistical compendium. Directorate of Oilseed Research, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
  33. Dashiell KE, Akem CN (1991) Yield losses in soybeans from frogeye leaf spot caused by Cercospora sojina. Crop Prot 10:465–468Google Scholar
  34. Endres J, Barter S, Theodora P et al (2013) Soybean enhanced lunch acceptance by preschoolers. J Am Diet Assoc 103:346–351Google Scholar
  35. Enikuomehin OA, Olowe VIO, Alao OS et al (2002) Assessment of Cercospora leaf spot disease of sesame in different planting dates in South-Western Nigeria. Moor J Agri Res 3:76–82Google Scholar
  36. Fan Z, Rimmer SR, Stefansson BR (1983) Inheritance of resistance to Albugo candida in rape (Brassica napus L.). Can J Genet Cytol 25:420–424Google Scholar
  37. FAOSTAT (2013). Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations
  38. Farr DF, Rossman AY (2015) Fungal databases, systematic mycology and microbiology laboratory, ARS, USDA.
  39. Fayadh MA, Al-Tememi HJ, Bnien LA (2011) Effect of some environmental factors on charcoal rot disease of sunflower caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. Arab J Plant Prot 29:1–6Google Scholar
  40. Galli JA, de Cassia PR, Fessel SA et al (2005) Effect of Colletotrichum dematium var. truncata and Cercospora kikuchii on soybean seed germination. Rev Bras Sementes 27:182–187Google Scholar
  41. Galli JA, de Cassia PR, Vieira RD (2007) Effect of Colletotrichum dermatium var. truncata and Phomopsis sojae in sanitary and physiological quality of soybean seeds. Summa Phytopathol 33:40–46Google Scholar
  42. Ghewande MP (1983) Effect of cultural practices on the disease (bud necrosis, collar rot, and stem rot) incidence and yield of groundnut. Indian Bot Rep 3:98Google Scholar
  43. Gore ME (2009) Epidemic outbreaks of downy mildew caused by Plasmopara helstedii on sunflower in Trace, part of the Marmara region of Turkey. Plant Pathol 58:396Google Scholar
  44. Gulya TJ, Krupinsky J, Draper M et al (2002a) First report of charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) on sunflower in North and South Dakota. Plant Dis 86:923PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gulya TJ, Shiel PJ, Freeman TF et al (2002b) Host range and characterization of Sunflower mosaic virus. Phytopathology 92:694–702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gulya TJ, Mengistu A, Kinzer K et al (2010) Sunflower diseases remain rare in California seed production fields compared to North Dakota. Plant Health Prog Doi.
  47. Habib H, Mehdi SS, Anjum MA et al (2007) Correlation and path analysis for seed yield in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) under charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) stress condition. Int J Agric Biol 9:362–364Google Scholar
  48. Harter AV, Gardner KA, Falush D et al (2004) Origin of extant domesticated sunflowers in eastern North America. Nature 430:201–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hayward AC, Waterson JM (1998) Pseudomonas sesami, descriptions of fungi and bacteria. IMI-Descriptions of fungi and bacteria. CAB Int UK. 2: 17Google Scholar
  50. Hiremath PC, Kulkarni MS, Lokesh MS (1990) An epiphytotic of Alternaria blight of sunflower in Karnataka. Karnataka J Agric Sci 3:277–278Google Scholar
  51. Humpherson-Jones FM, Maude RB (1982) Studies on the epidemiology of Alternaria brassicicola in Brassica oleracea seed production crops. Ann Appl Biol 100:61–71Google Scholar
  52. Irwin JAG (1976) Aust J Exp Agric Anim Husb 16:931Google Scholar
  53. Jackson KJ, Berthelsen JE (1986) Production of safflower, Carthamus tinctorius L. in Queensland. J Aust Ins Agric Sci 52(2):63–72Google Scholar
  54. Jackson KJ, Irwin JAG, Berthelsen JE (1987) Sources of Alternaria carthami inoculum in safflower. Aust J Exp Agric 27(1):149–154Google Scholar
  55. Jain AC, Nenra KG (1952) Aspergillus blight of groundnut seedlings. Sci Cult 17:348Google Scholar
  56. Jasalavich CA, Morales VM, Pelcher LE et al (1995) Comparison of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from Alternaria species pathogenic to crucifers. Mycol Res 99:604–614Google Scholar
  57. Jawalgaonkar NK (1991) Seed borne fungi of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and their significance. M.Sc. (Agric.) thesis, MAU, ParbhaniGoogle Scholar
  58. Jha GK, Burman RR, Dubey SK et al (2011) Yield gap analysis of major oilseeds in India. J Commun Mobil Sustain Develop 6:209–216Google Scholar
  59. Jha GK, Pal S, Mathur VC et al (2012) Edible oilseeds supply and demand scenario in India: Implications for policy. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Published by: Director, IARI, ISBN: 978-81-88708-90-1, p 99Google Scholar
  60. Kajomchaiyakul P, Brown JF (1976) The infection process and factors affecting infection of sunflower by Albugo tragopogi. Trans Br Mycol Soc 66:91–95Google Scholar
  61. Khan SN (2007) Macrophomina phaseolina as causal agent for charcoal rot of sunflower. Mycopath 5:111–118Google Scholar
  62. Khan SN, Ayub A, Iftkhar A et al (2005) Effect of inoculums density of Macrophomina phaseolina on grain production of sunflower. Mycopath 3:61–63Google Scholar
  63. Kolte SJ (1985) Diseases of annual edible oilseed crops, Sunflower, safflower and nigerseed diseases, vol III. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  64. Kolte SJ, Awasthi RP, Vishwanath (1987) Assessment of yield losses due to Alternaria blight in rapeseed and mustard. Indian Phytopathol 40:209–211Google Scholar
  65. Kuhn CW, Demski JW (1975) The relationship of Peanut mottle virus to peanut production. Georgia Agric Exp Stn Res Rep 213:19Google Scholar
  66. Kuhn CW, Demski JW (1984) Peanut mottle. In: Porter DM, Smith DH, Kabana RR (eds) Compendium of peanut diseases. American Phytopathological Society, Minnesota, pp 45–46Google Scholar
  67. Kushi KK, Khare MN (1979) Seed-borne fungi of sesame (Sesamum indicum) and their significance. Seed Res 7:48–53Google Scholar
  68. Lakra BS, Saharan GS (1989) Correlation of leaf and staghead infection intensities of white rust with yield and yield components of mustard. Indian J Mycol Plant Pathol 19:279–281Google Scholar
  69. Laviolette FA, Athow KL, Probst AH et al (1970) Effect of bacterial pustule and frogeye leaf spot on yield of Clark soybean. Crop Sci 10:418–419Google Scholar
  70. Lehman SG (1928) Frog-eye leaf spot of soybean caused by Cercospora diazu Miura. J Agric Res 35:811–833Google Scholar
  71. Liu JQ, Parks P, Rimmer SR (1996) Development of monogenic lines for resistance to Albugo candida from a Canadian Brassica napus cultivar. Phytopathology 86:1000–1004Google Scholar
  72. Ma GZ (1994) Review and forecast of study on frogeye leaf spot. Soybean J 1:6–7Google Scholar
  73. Mahmoud A, Budak H (2011) First report of charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in sunflower in Turkey. Plant Dis 95:223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Mayee CD (1988) Downy mildew of sunflower in India; Problem and approaches. Rev Trop Plant Path 54:181–192Google Scholar
  75. Mayee CD, Dattar VV (1988) Diseases of groundnut in the Tropics. Rev Trop Plant Path 5:85–118Google Scholar
  76. Mayee CD, Patil MA (1986) Downy mildew of sunflower. Indian Phytopath 39:314Google Scholar
  77. Meena PD, Chattopadhyay C, Singh F et al (2002) Yield loss in Indian mustard due to white rust and effect of some cultural practices on Alternaria blight and white rust severity. Brassica 4:18–24Google Scholar
  78. Meena PD, Meena RL, Chattopadhyay C et al (2004) Identification of critical stage for disease development and biocontrol of Alternaria blight of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). J Phytopathology 152:204–209Google Scholar
  79. Meena PD, Awasthi RP, Chattopadhyay C et al (2010) Alternaria blight: A chronic disease in rapeseed-mustard. J Oilseed Brassica 1:1–11Google Scholar
  80. Meena PD, Verma PR, Saharan GS et al (2014) Historical perspectives of white rust caused by Albugo candida in oilseed brassica. J Oilseed Brassica 5:1–41Google Scholar
  81. Mehan VK, Mayee CD, Brenneman TB et al (1995) Stem and pod rots of groundnut. Information Bulletin no.44 Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, p 19Google Scholar
  82. Melchers LE (1925) Diseases of cereal and forage crops in the United States in 1924. Plant Dis Rep 40:186Google Scholar
  83. Mian MAR, Boerma HR, Phillips DV et al (1998) Performance of frogeye leaf spot resistant and susceptible near isolines of soybean. Plant Dis 82:1017–1021PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Mian MAR, Missaoui AM, Walker DR et al (2008) Frogeye leaf spot of soybean: A review and proposed race designations for isolates of Cercospora sojina Hara. Crop Sci 48:14–24Google Scholar
  85. Misra JB, Rathnakumar AL (2011) Vision 2030. Directorate of Groundnut Research, Junagadh, p 36Google Scholar
  86. Mittal RK (2001) Yield losses by frog-eye leaf spot and anthracnose diseases in soybean under different sowing dates in the hills. Indian Phytopath 54:32–34Google Scholar
  87. Mohanty NN (1958) Cercospora leaf spot of sesame. Indian Phytopath 11:186Google Scholar
  88. Moraes MHD, Menten JOM (2006) Transmission of Alternaria spp. by common bean seeds and its effects on physiological quality. Summa Phytopathol 32:381–383Google Scholar
  89. Mridha MAU (1983) Virulence of different isolates of Alternaria brassicae on winter oilseed rape cultivars. In: 6th International Rapeseed Congress, Paris, France, 17-19 May 1983, p 1025-1029Google Scholar
  90. Mundkur BB (1959) Fungi and plant diseases. MacMillan, London, p 75Google Scholar
  91. Naik MK, Savitha AS, Lokesha R et al (2007) Perpetuation of Alternaria sesami causing blight of sesame in seeds and plant debris. Indian Phytopath 60:72–75Google Scholar
  92. Narvel JM, Jakkula LR, Phillips DV et al (2001) Molecular mapping of Rxp conditioning reaction to bacterial pustule in soybean. J Heredity 92:267–270Google Scholar
  93. Naz F, Ashraf M (2006) Histopathological studies of sunflower seedlings infected with Macrophomina phaseolina. Int J Biol Biotechnol 3:107–112Google Scholar
  94. Nema A, Bhale MS, Garg DC (2012) Pod blight of soybean: A prediction model for Central Narmada Valley Zone of Madhya Pradesh, India. Abstract. In: 3rd Global Conference on Plant Pathology for Food Security, Indian Society of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Udaipur, India, 10–13 January, 2012, p 204Google Scholar
  95. N’Gabala AZ, Zambettakis C (1970) Alternaria sesami (Kaw.) Mohanty et Behera. Fiches de Phytopathologie tropicale 23: 6
  96. Nischwitz C, Maas AL, Mullis SW et al (2007) First report of Peanut mottle virus in forage peanut (Arachis glabrata) in North America. Plant Dis 91:632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Ojiambo PS, Narla RD, Ayiecho PO et al (2000) Infection of sesame seed by Alternaria sesami (Kawamura) Mohanty and Behera and severity of Alternaria leaf spot in Kenya. Int J Pest Manage 46:121–124Google Scholar
  98. Ojiambo PS, Mibey RK, Narla RD et al (2003) Field transmission efficiency of Alternaria sesami in sesame from infected seed. Crop Prot 22:1107–1115Google Scholar
  99. Ojiambo PS, Ayiecho PO, Nyabund JO (2008) Severity of Alternaria leaf spot and seed infection by Alternaria sesami (Kawamura) Mohanty and Behera, as affected by plant age of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). J Phytopathol 147:403–407Google Scholar
  100. Park KS, Lee SG (2003) Leaf spot of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) caused by Alternaria carthami and A. alternata. Plant Dis 9:159–161Google Scholar
  101. Patil SK, Dharne PK, Shambharkar DA (2001) Response of different promising genotypes of sesame to major insect pests and leaf spot disease. Sesame Safflower Newsl 16:72–74Google Scholar
  102. Petrie GA (1975) Prevalence of oospores of Albugo cruciferarum in Brassica seed samples from western Canada, 1967-73. Can Plant Dis Surv 55:19–24Google Scholar
  103. Petrie GA (1988) Races of Albugo candida (white rust and staghead) on cultivated cruciferae in Saskatchewan. Can J Plant Pathol 10:142–150Google Scholar
  104. Pidskalny RS, Rimmer SR (1985) Virulence of Albugo candida from turnip rape (Brassica campestris) and mustard (Brassica juncea) on various crucifers. Can J Plant Pathol 7:283–286Google Scholar
  105. Pietersen G, Garnett HM (1992) Some properties of a Peanut mottle virus (PMoV) isolate from soybeans in South Africa. Phytophylactica 24:211–215Google Scholar
  106. Pound GS, Williams PH (1963) Biological races of Albugo candida. Phytopathology 53:1146–1149Google Scholar
  107. Prasada Rao RDVJ, Ribeiro GP, Pittman R (1993) Reaction of Arachis germplasm to peanut stripe, peanut mottle and tomato spotted wilt viruses. Peanut Sci 20:115–118Google Scholar
  108. Prathuangwong S, Amnuaykit K (1987) Studies on tolerance and rate reducing bacterial pustule of soybean cultivars/lines. The Kasetsart J (Nat Sci) 21:408–420Google Scholar
  109. Rahim M (2001) Allelic relationship of resistance genes to sunflower downy mildew race 1 in various sunflower inbred lines. Online J Biol Sci 4:201–205Google Scholar
  110. Rao NR, Vijayalakshmi M (2000) Studies on Alternaria sesami pathogenic to sesame. Microbiol Res 155:129–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Ratna AS, Rao AS, Reddy AS (1991) Studies on transmission of peanut clump virus disease by Polymyxa graminis. Ann Appl Biol 118:71–78Google Scholar
  112. Reddy M, Reddy DVR, Appa Rao A (1968) A new record of virus disease on peanut. Plant Dis Rep 52:494–495Google Scholar
  113. Reddy DVR, Robinson DJ, Roberts IM et al (1985) Genome properties and relationships of Indian Peanut clump virus. J Gen Virol 66:2011–2016Google Scholar
  114. Reddy AS, Hobbs HA, Delfosse P (1998) Seed transmission of Indian Peanut clump virus (IPCV) in peanut and millets. Plant Dis 82:343–346Google Scholar
  115. Rimmer SR, Mathur S, Wu CR (2000) Virulence of isolates of Albugo candida from western Canada to Brassica species. Can J Plant Pathol 22:229–235Google Scholar
  116. Sandhu KS, Singh H, Kumar R (1985) Effect of different nitrogen levels and dates of planting on Alternaria blight and downy mildew diseases of radish seed crop. J Res Punjab Agric Univ 22:285–290Google Scholar
  117. Shirshikar SP (1997) Survey of sunflower downy mildew disease in Marathwada region. J Maharashtra Agric Univ 22(1):135–136Google Scholar
  118. Shovan LR, Bhuiyan MKA, Sultana N et al (2008) Prevalence of fungi associated with soybean seeds and pathogenicity tests of the major seed-borne pathogens. Int J Sustain Crop Prod 3:24–33Google Scholar
  119. Shrestha SK, Mathur SB, Munk L (2003a) Transmission of Alternaria brassicae in seeds of rapeseed and mustard, its location in seeds and control. Seed Sci Technol J 8:75–84Google Scholar
  120. Shrestha SK, Munk L, Mathur SB (2003b) Survival of Alternaria brassicae in seeds and crop debris of rapeseed and mustard in Nepal. Seed Sci Technol J 31:103–109Google Scholar
  121. Shukla BN, Chand JN, Kulkarni SN (1972) Changes in sugar contents of sesame leaves infected with Xanthomonas sesame. Nature (London) 213(5078):813Google Scholar
  122. Simmons EG (2007) Alternaria: an identification manual. CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Series No. 6, Utrecht, The Netherlands. P 775Google Scholar
  123. Singh BM, Bhardwaj CL (1984) Physiologic races of Albugo candida on crucifers in Himachal Pradesh. Indian J Mycol Plant Pathol 14:25Google Scholar
  124. Singh A, Bhowmikh TP (1979) Occurrences of charcoal rot of safflower in India. Indian Phytopath 32:626–627Google Scholar
  125. Singh B, Mathur SC (1953) Sclerotial root rot disease of groundnut in Uttar Pradesh. Curr Sci 22:214–215Google Scholar
  126. Verma PR, Harding H, Petrie GA et al (1975) Infection and temporal development of mycelium of Albugo candida in cotyledons of four Brassica spp. Can J Bot 53:1016–1020Google Scholar
  127. Verma PR, Saharan GS, Bartaria AM et al (1999) Biological races of Albugo candida on Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa var. Toria. Indian J Mycol Plant Pathol 29:75–82Google Scholar
  128. Vijayat R, Chakravarti BP (1977) Yield losses due to bacterial leaf spot of Sesamum orientale in Rajasthan. Indian J Plant Pathol 7(1):97Google Scholar
  129. Vishwanath, Kolte SJ (1997) Biochemical variation among three isolates of Alternaria brassicae. Indian Phytopath 50:437–438Google Scholar
  130. Wang RY, Kritzman A, Hershman DE et al (2006) Aphis glycines as a vector of persistently and non-persistently transmitted viruses and potential risks for soybean and other crops. Plant Dis 90:920–926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Yu SH, Mathur SB, Neergaard P (1982) Taxonomy and pathogenicity of four seed borne species of Alternaria from sesame. Trans Br Mycol Soc 78:447–458Google Scholar
  132. Zaved MA, Statour MM, Aly AZ et al (1983) Importance of Sclerotium spp. on peanuts in Egypt. Egyptian J Plant Pathol 15:7–15Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. P. Thirumalaisamy
    • 1
  • K. S. Jadon
    • 2
  • P. Sharma
    • 3
  1. 1.ICAR-Directorate of Groundnut ResearchJunagadhIndia
  2. 2.ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research InstituteJodhpurIndia
  3. 3.Punjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

Personalised recommendations