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Metabolic Diseases and Aging

  • Arttatrana PalEmail author
  • Pramod C. RathEmail author
Chapter
  • 45 Downloads

Abstract

Aging symbolizes a convergence of gradual deterioration of organ or tissue functions in the maintenance of homeostatic veracity of the different physiological processes that serve our body and mind over time. The homeostatic imbalance of body systems, due to anomalous factors, is fertile ground for the development of structural and functional alterations of various biochemical, molecular, cellular, and tissue components and accumulated levels of damaged micro- and macromolecules that eventually influence the increased risk for diverse diseases and aging in human subjects. More importantly, aging starts with birth and accelerates with advancing age, leading to changes in structure and functions of physiological processes that are sometimes obvious but frequently go unnoticed for a long time. The aging process is dynamically affected by genetic, endocrine, metabolic, environmental factors and lifestyle behavior that ultimately lead to metabolic syndrome involving insulin resistance (IR), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), changes in body composition, physiological abnormality in secretion of growth hormone (GH), and sex steroids. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the metabolic disorder-related aging progress, such as increasing oxidative-nitrosative stress, accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), shortening and/or loss of telomere, accumulation of damaged DNA in cells, dysfunction of important cellular organelles, action of stress response genes in cellular compartments, and nutrient sensors. However, it is well established that aging is a major risk factor for several pathologies and the progression of various metabolic disturbances, including the progressive development of hyperglycemia, gradual deposition of fat, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Also, metabolic disturbances occur in response to changes in lifestyle and the consumption of high-fat-containing diet. A number of interventions designed in animal models and clinics to address features of metabolic syndrome-regulated aging, such as regular exercise, caloric restriction (CR), visceral fat depletion, restoration of cellular antioxidants, and attenuated oxidative-nitrosative stress, have succeeded in improving insulin action, better lifespan and minimizing the aging process. Meanwhile, pharmacologic interventions, anti-AGE therapeutics, attenuated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, and hormonal perturbations have increased the lifespan of several mammalian species including human subjects without necessarily addressing features of metabolic syndrome-related decline in longevity. A major focus of this chapter will be metabolic syndrome (MS), diabetes and aging.

Keywords

Metabolic disorder Diabetes Aging Mitochondrial dysfunction Signaling networks Abnormal endocrine function Insulin receptor DNA repair and telomere Strategies to delay aging 

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Zoology, School of Life SciencesMahatma Gandhi Central UniversityMotihariIndia
  2. 2.Molecular Biology Laboratory, School of Life SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia

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