Access, Assurance and Acceptance

Moving Beyond the Status-Quo/Revisionist Power Debate in Investigating China’s Emerging Foreign Policy Strategy
  • Adam MacDonaldEmail author


China’s emergence as a regional and global power has called into question its intentions towards the international system. Most analyses debate and interpret the nature of China’s rise—itself a contested concept (Yue in Int Politics 45:439–456, 2008)—as either status-quo or revisionist.


Foreign Policy United Nations Great Power International System International Relation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Agnew, John. 2010. Emerging China and critical geopolitics: Between world politics and Chinese particularity. Eurasian Geography and Economics 51(5): 569–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bernstein, Richard, and Ross H. Munro. 1997. The coming conflict with China. Foreign Affairs 76(2): 18–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Betts, Richard K. Winter 1993–1994. Wealth, power, and instability: East Asia and the United States after the cold war. International Security 18(3): 34–77.Google Scholar
  4. Bhalla, Madhu. 2005. Domestic roots of China’s foreign and security policy. International Studies 42(3&4): 205–25.Google Scholar
  5. Buszynski, Lesbex. 2009. Sino-Japanese relations: Interdependence, rivalry and regional security. Contemporary Southeast Asia 31(1): 143–71.Google Scholar
  6. Cao, Jing. 2010. Reconciling economic growth and carbon mitigation: Challenges and policy options in China. Asian Economic Policy Review 5: 110–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chan, Lai-Ha, Pak K. Lee, and Gerald Chan. 2008. Rethinking global governance: A China model in the making. Contemporary Politics 14(1): 3–19.Google Scholar
  8. China Defense in 2008. The Information Office of the State Council. (accessed February 20, 2009).
  9. China’s Peaceful Development Road. 2005. The Information Office of the State Council, 22 December 2005. (accessed November 3, 2008).
  10. China’s Position on Establishing a New International Political and Economic Order. 2003. The Foreign Ministry of the People’s Republic of China, 18 August 2003. (accessed November 3, 2008).
  11. Chinese naval fleet sails into Gulf of Aden. 2009. China Daily, January 6, 2009.Google Scholar
  12. Christensen, Thomas J. 1996. Chinese Realpolitik. Foreign Affairs 75(5): 37–52.Google Scholar
  13. Christensen, Thomas J. 2011. The advantages of an assertive China: Responding to Beijing’s abrasive diplomacy. Foreign Affairs. (accessed March 20, 2015).
  14. Chubb, Andrew. 2013. Propaganda, not policy: Explaining the PLA’s ‘Hawkish Faction’ (Part I). The China Brief 13(15): 6–11.Google Scholar
  15. Clarke, Michael. 2008. China’s ‘War on Terror’ in Xinjiang: Human security and the causes of violent Uighur separatism. Terrorism and Political Violence 20(2): 271–300.Google Scholar
  16. Deng, Yong, and Thomas G. Moore. 2004. China views globalization: Toward a new great power politics? The Washington Quarterly 27(2): 117–36.Google Scholar
  17. Dillon, Dana, and John J. Tkacik Jr. 2005. China’s quest for Asia. Policy Review 134: 29–40.Google Scholar
  18. Ding, Sheng. 2008. To build a ‘Harmonious World’: China’s soft power wielding in the global South. Journal of Political Science 13(2): 193–214.Google Scholar
  19. Ding, Sheng. 2010. Analyzing rising power from the perspective of soft power: A new look at China’s role to the status-quo power. Journal of Contemporary China 19(64): 255–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Economy, Elizabeth C. 2014. China’s imperial president: Xi Jiping tightens his grip, November/December 2014. Foreign Affairs 93(6): 80–91.Google Scholar
  21. Fravel, Taylor M. and Evan, S. 2010. Medeiros, “China’s search for assured retaliation: The evolution of Chinese nuclear force structure”, Fall 2010. International Security 35(2): 48–87.Google Scholar
  22. Fewsmith, Joseph. 2008. China since Tiananmen, 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Foot, Rosemary. 2009. China and the United States: Between cold and warm peace. Survival 51(6): 123–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Friedberg, Aaron L. 2005. The future of US–China relations: Is conflict inevitable? Fall 2005. International Security 30(2): 7–45.Google Scholar
  25. Friedberg, Aaron L. 2011. A contest for supremacy: China, American and the struggle for mastery of Asia. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  26. Friedberg, Aaron L. 2015. The sources of Chinese conduct: Explaining Beijing’s assertiveness, Winter 2015. The Washington Quarterly 37(4): 133–50.Google Scholar
  27. Gertz, Bill. 2000. The China threat: How the People’s Republic targets America. Washington: Regnery Publishing.Google Scholar
  28. Gill, Bates, and James Reilley. 2000. Sovereignty, intervention and peacekeeping: The view from Beijing, Autumn 2000. Survival 42(3): 41–59.Google Scholar
  29. Gilley, Bruce. 2008. Legitimacy and institutional change: The case of China, March 2008. Comparative Political Studies 41(3): 259–84.Google Scholar
  30. Gilpin, Robert. 1983. War and change in world politics. New York: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
  31. Gilpin, Robert. 1988. The theory of Hegemonic war, Spring 1988. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18(4): 591–613.Google Scholar
  32. Glaser, Charles. 2011. Will China’s rise lead to war? Foreign Affairs 90(2): 80–91.Google Scholar
  33. Goldstein, Avery. 2005. Rising to the challenge: China’s grand strategy and international security. Stanford, North Carolina: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Hachigian, Nina. 2014. Debating China: The US–China relationship in ten conversations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Hadley, Stephan, and Paul Haelne. 2015. The catch-22 in US–Chinese relations: The future of bilateral ties, 22 February 2015. Foreign Affairs. (accessed March 20, 2015).
  36. Haslam, Jonathon. 2010. John Mearsheimer’s ‘Elementary Geometry of Power’: Euclidean moment or an intellectual blind alley? In History and Neorealism, ed. E. R. May, R. Rosecrance and Steiner. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. He, Kai, and Huiyun Feng. 2008. If not soft balancing, then what? Reconsidering soft balancing and US policy toward China. Security Studies 17: 2363–2395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Holbig, Heike. 2006. Ideological reform and political legitimacy in China: Challenges in the Post-Jiang era. German Institute of Global and Area Studies Working Papers, March 2006.Google Scholar
  39. Holslag, Jonathan. 2008. China’s diplomatic manoeuvring on the question of Darfur, February 2008. Journal of Contemporary China 17(54): 71–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Holslag, Jonathan. 2009. The persistent military security Dilemma between China and India. Journal of Strategic Studies 32(6): 811–40.Google Scholar
  41. Hu, Jintao. 2005. Build towards a harmonious world of lasting peace and common prosperity, Speech presented at the United Nations 60th anniversary summit, September 15, 2005. Permanent Mission of the PRC to the UN. (accessed January 10, 2009).
  42. Ikenberry, G.John. 2004. American hegemony and East Asian order. Australian Journal of Foreign Affairs 58(3): 353–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ikenberry, G. John. 2008. The rise of China: Power, institutions and the western order. In China’s: Power, security and the future of international politics, ed. Robert S. Ross and Zhu Feng, 89–114. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Jerden, Bjӧrn. 2014. The assertive China narrative: Why it is wrong and how so many people bought into it. The Chinese Journal of International Politics 7(1): 47–88.Google Scholar
  45. Johnston, Alastair Ian. 1995. Cultural realism: Strategic culture and grand strategy in Chinese history. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Johnston, Alastair Ian. 2003. Is China a status-quo power? Spring 2003. International Security 27(4): 5–56.Google Scholar
  47. Johnston, Alastair Ian. 2011. Stability and Instability in Sino–US relations: A response to Yan Xuetong’s superficial friendship theory. The Chinese Journal of International Politics 4: 5–29.Google Scholar
  48. Johnston, Alastair Ian. 2013. How new and assertive is China’s new assertiveness? Spring 2013. International Security 37(4): 7–48.Google Scholar
  49. Kagan, Robert. 2005. The illusion of managing China, May 15, 2005. The Washington Post 15: B07.Google Scholar
  50. Kagan, Robert. 2006. League of dictators? Why China and Russia will continue to support autocracies. The Washington Post 30.Google Scholar
  51. Kaplan, Robert D. 2005. How we would fight China. The Atlantic 295(5): 49–64.Google Scholar
  52. Kaufman, A.A. 2010. The ‘century of humiliation’ then and now: Chinese perception of the international order. Pacific Focus 25(1): 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kent, Ann. 2002. China’s international socialization: The role of international organizations. Global Governance 8: 343–364.Google Scholar
  54. Kim, Samuel S. 2003. China’s path to great power status in the globalization era. Asian Perspective 27(1): 35–75.Google Scholar
  55. Kleine-Ahlbrandt, Stephanie, and Andrew Small. 2008. China’s new dictatorship diplomacy. Foreign Affairs January–February 2008. 87(1): 38–56.Google Scholar
  56. Kupchan, Charles A. 2012. No one’s world: The west, the rising rest, and the coming global turn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. LaFranchi, Howard. 2006. For pariah nations, ‘rogue’ status pays off”. Christian Science Monitor 5.Google Scholar
  58. Lampton, David M. 2008. The three faces of Chinese power: Might, money and minds. Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  59. Lampton, David M. 2009. The US and China in the age of Obama: Looking each other straight in the eyes. Journal of Contemporary China 18(62): 703–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Landry, Pierre. 2008. Decentralized authoritarianism in China: The communist party’s control of local elites in the post-Mao era. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lebow, Richard Ned, and Benjamin Valentino. 2009. Lost in transition: A critical analysis of power transition theory. International Relations 23(3): 389–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lee, Walter. 2013. China’s unassertive rise: What is assertiveness and how we have misunderstood it? International Journal of China Studies 4(3): 503–538.Google Scholar
  63. Legro, Jeffrey W. 2008. Purpose transitions: China’s rise and the American response. In China’s ascent: Power, security and the future of international politics, ed. Robert S. Ross, and Zhu Feng, 163–187. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Leonard, Mark. 2013. Why convergence breeds conflict. Foreign Affairs 92(5): 125–135.Google Scholar
  65. Levy, Jack S. 2008. Power transition theory and the rise of China. In China’s ascent: Power, security and the future of international politics, ed. S.Robert Ross, and Zhu Feng, 11–33. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Li, Cheng. 2005. The new bipartisanship within the Chinese communist party, Summer 2005. Orbis 49(3): 387–400.Google Scholar
  67. Li, Hak Yin, and Yongnian Zheng. 2009. Re-interpreting China’s non-intervention policy towards Myanmar: Leverage, interests and intervention. Journal of Contemporary China 18(61): 617–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lum, Thomas. 2006. Social unrest in China. CRS Report for Congress, May 8, 2006.Google Scholar
  69. MacDonald, Adam P. 2014. The new military reality in East Asia. Frontline Defence 11(5): 19–24.Google Scholar
  70. Mastro, Oriana Skylar. 2015. Why Chinese assertiveness is here to stay, Winter 2015. The Washington Quarterly 37(4): 151–70.Google Scholar
  71. Matsuda, Yasuhiro. 2014. How to understand China’s assertiveness since 2009: Hypotheses and policy implications, April 2014. Centre for Strategic and International Studies, 1–16.Google Scholar
  72. Mearsheimer, John J. 2001. The tragedy of great power politics. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.Google Scholar
  73. Mearsheimer, John J. 2014. The tragedy of great power politics: Updated edition. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.Google Scholar
  74. Menges, Constantine C. 2005. China: The gathering threat. Nashville: Nelson Current.Google Scholar
  75. Moore, Thomas G. 2008. Racing to integrate, or cooperating to compete? Liberal and realist interpretations of China’s new multilateralism. In China turns to multilateralism: Foreign policy and regional security, ed. Wu & Lansdowne. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  76. Moore, Gregory J. 2010. History, Nationalism and face in Sino–Japanese relations. Journal of Chinese Political Science 15: 283–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Morgenthau, Hans. 1967. Politics among nations, 4th ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  78. Morton, Katherine. 2008. China and environmental security in the age of consequences. Asia-Pacific Review 15(2): 52–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Moshar, Steven W. 2001. Hegemon: China’s plan to dominate Asia and the world. New York: Encounter Books.Google Scholar
  80. Nathan, Andrew J. 2003. Authoritarian resilience. Journal of Democracy 14(1): 6–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nourafchan, Nicolo. 2010. Constructive partner or menacing threat? Analyzing China’s role in the Iranian nuclear program. Asian Security 6(1): 28–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nye, Joseph S. 2011. The future of power. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  83. O’Hanlon, Michael E., and James Steinberg. 2014. Strategic reassurance and resolve: US–China relations in the twenty-first century. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Organski, A.F.K., and Jack Kugler. 1980. The war ledger. Chicago: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  85. Pei, Minxin. 2006. China’s trapped transition: The limits of developmental autocracy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Posen, Barry R. 2003. Command of the commons: The military foundation of US Hegemony, Summer 2003. International Security 28(1): 5–46.Google Scholar
  87. Pu, Xiaoyu and Randall L. Schweller. 2011. After unipolarity: China’s visions of international order in an era of US decline, Summer 2011. International Security 36: 1, 41–72.Google Scholar
  88. Ross, Robert S. 1997. Beijing as a conservative power. Foreign Affairs 76(2): 33–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ross, Robert S. 2005. Assessing the China threat, Fall 2005. The National Interest 81–87.Google Scholar
  90. Ross, Robert S. 2010. The rise of Chinese power and the implications for the regional security order, Fall 2010. Orbis 54(4): 525–45.Google Scholar
  91. Roy, Denny. 1994. Hegemon on the horizon? China’s threat to East Asian security, Summer 1994. International Security 19(1): 149–68.Google Scholar
  92. Scott, David. 2010. China and the ‘responsibilities’ of a ‘responsible’ power-the uncertainties of appropriate power rise language. Asia Pacific Review 17(1): 72–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Shambaugh, David. 2009. China’s communist party: Atrophy and adaption. Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  94. Shambaugh, David. 2013. China goes global: The partial power. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Shambaugh, David. 1996. Containment or engagement of China? Calculating Beijing’s responses, Autumn 1996. International Security 21(2): 180–209.Google Scholar
  96. Shirk, Susan L. 2008. China: Fragile superpower. Toronto: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Stähle, Stefan. 2008. China’s shifting attitude towards United Nations peacekeeping operations. The China Quarterly 195: 631–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sun, Yun. 2015. The UK signs onto AIIB, 19 March 2015. East Asia Forum. (accessed March 20, 2015).
  99. Tang, Shiping. 2008. From offensive to defensive realism: A social evolutionary interpretation of China’s security strategy. In China’s ascent: Power, security and the future of international politics, ed. S.Robert Ross, and Zhu Feng, 89–114. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  100. Tanner, Murray Scot. 2004. China rethinks unrest. The Washington Quarterly 27(3): 137–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Timperlake, Edward, and William C. Triplett. 1999. Red dragon rising: Communist China’s military threat to America. Washington: Regnery Publishing.Google Scholar
  102. Totten, Jordan. 2014. BRICS new development bank threatens hegemony of US dollar, December 22, 2014. Forbes Magazine. (accessed February 10, 2015).
  103. Waltz, Kenneth N. 1979. Theory of international politics. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  104. Waltz, Kenneth N. 2000. Structural realism after the cold war, Summer 2000. International Security 25(1): 5–41.Google Scholar
  105. Wang, Jisi. 2005. China search for stability with America. Foreign Affairs 84(5): 39–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wayne, Martin I. 2009. Inside China’s war on terrorism. Journal of Contemporary China 18(59): 249–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. White, Hugh. 2012. The China choice: Why we should share power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  108. Wright, Thomas. 2015. The rise and fall of the unipolar concert, Winter 2015. The Washington Quarterly 37(4): 7–24.Google Scholar
  109. Wu, Guoguang, and Helen Lansdowne. 2008. International multilateralism with Chinese characteristics: Attitude changes, policy imperatives, and regional impacts. In China turns to multilateralism: Foreign policy and regional security, ed. Wu and Lansdowne. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  110. Xiang, Lanxian. 2012. China and the pivot. Survival 54(5): 113–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Yahuda, Michael. 2013. China’s new assertiveness in the South China sea. Journal of Contemporary China 22(81): 446–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Yang, Jian. 2009. China in the South Pacific: hegemon on the horizon? The Pacific Review 22(2): 139–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Yuan, Jing-Dong. 2010. China’s role in establishing and building the Shanghai cooperation organization (SCO). Journal of Contemporary China 19(67): 855–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Yue, Xie. 2008a. Party adaption and the prospects for democratization in authoritarian China. Issues and Studies 44(2): 79–102.Google Scholar
  115. Yue, Jianyong. 2008b. Peaceful rise of China: Myth or reality? International Politics 45: 439–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zao, Suisheng. 2005. China’s pragmatic nationalism: Is it manageable? Winter 2005–2006. The Washington Quarterly 29(1): 131–44.Google Scholar
  117. Zheng, Bijian. 2005. China’s ‘peaceful rise’ to great-power status. Foreign Affairs 84(5): 18–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zhu, Feng. 2008. China’s rise will be peaceful: How unipolarity matters. In China’s ascent: Power security and the future of international politics, ed. Robert S. Ross, and Zhu Feng, 34–54. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.HalifaxCanada

Personalised recommendations