Advertisement

Neoliberal Violence and Marketised Youth Services

  • Ben Arnold LohmeyerEmail author
Chapter
  • 15 Downloads
Part of the Perspectives on Children and Young People book series (PCYP, volume 11)

Abstract

In this chapter, I return to Giroux’s (2014) description of the ‘merging of violence and governance’ (p. 226) as neoliberal violence and argue that this language is useful to make visible the violating effects of neoliberalism on young people’s lives. Neoliberalism and the dominance of a competitive market rationale construct individualising and highly regulated performativities for young people that deny them access to the promises of participation and justice afforded to previous generations. I begin this chapter by providing some parameters for the discussion of neoliberalism. The remainder of the chapter is divided into two parts. The first section contains participants responses to a specific manifestation of the neoliberal violence (Fair Process). The final section steps back from the specifics of Fair Process and positions it as an exemplar of the effect of neoliberal violence on youth services and subsequently on young people’s lives.

References

  1. Arendt, H. (1972). crises of the republic: Lying in politics; civil disobedience; on violence; thoughts on politics and revolution (1st ed.). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  2. Arnstein, S. R. (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 34(4), 216–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bacchi, C. (2009). Analysing policy: What’s the problem represented to be?. Frenchs Forrest, NSW: Pearson.Google Scholar
  4. Barton, C. K. B. (2003). Restorative justice: The empowerment model. Annandale, NSW: Hawkins Press.Google Scholar
  5. Berdayes, V., & Murphy, J. W. (2016a). Language, social order, and neoliberal violence. In V. Berdayes & J. W. Murphy (Eds.), Neoliberalism, economic radicalism, and the normalisation of violence (pp. 1–14). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berdayes, V., & Murphy, J. W. (2016b). Neoliberalism, economic radicalism, and the normalization of violence. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berns, S. (2002). Returning to our roots: Australia’s new deserving poor. Australian Feminist Law Journal, 16(1), 24–52.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13200968.2002.11106903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bingham, C. M., & Kramer, E. (2016). Neoliberalism and the production of enemies: The commercial logic of yahoo! news. In V. Berdayes & J. W. Murphy (Eds.), Neoliberalism, economic radicalism, and the normalization of violence (pp. 53–70). Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bourdieu, P. (2001). Masculine domination. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, shame and reintegration. Sydney: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Braithwaite, J. (1997). Conferencing and plurality-reply to blagg. British Journal of Criminology, 37(4), 502–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Braithwaite, J. (1999). Restorative justice: Assessing optimistic and pessimistic accounts. Crime & Justice, 25(1), 1–128.  https://doi.org/10.1086/449287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Braithwaite, J. (2000). Democracy, community and problem solving. http://www.iirp.edu/article_detail.php?article_id=NDgz
  14. Brennan, M. (2009). Steering teachers: Working to control the feminized profession of education. Journal of Sociology, 45(4), 339–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cuervo, H., & Wyn, J. (2016). An unspoken crisis: The ‘scarring effects’ of the complex nexus between education and work on two generations of young Australians. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 35(2), 122–135.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02601370.2016.1164467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Daly, K. (2002). Restorative justice: The real story. Punishment & Society, 4(1), 55–79.  https://doi.org/10.1177/14624740222228464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Daly, K., & Hayes, H. (2001). Restorative justice and conferencing in Australia. (186). Canberra, ACT: Australian GovernmentGoogle Scholar
  18. Dean, M. (2014). Rethinking neoliberalism. Journal of Sociology, 50(2), 150–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Esposito, L. (2016). Neoliberalism and the transformation of work. In V. Berdayes & J. W. Murphy (Eds.), Neoliberalism, economic radicalism, and the normalisation of violence (pp. 87–106). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fawcett, B., Goodwin, S., Meagher, G., & Phillips, R. (2010). Social policy for social change. South Yarra, NSW: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  21. Frankfurt, H. G. (1988). On Bullshit: The importance of what we care about. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fraser, H., & Taylor, N. (2016). Neoliberalisation, universities and the public intellectual. UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  23. Galtung, J. (1969). Violence, peace and peace research. Journal of peace research, 6(3), 167–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Galtung, J. (1990). Cultural violence. Journal of peace research, 27(3), 291–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Giroux, H. A. (2002). Global capitalism and the return of the Garrison State: Rethinking hope in the age of insecurity. Arena Journal, 19, 141–160.Google Scholar
  26. Giroux, H. A. (2014). Resisting youth and the crushing state violence of neoliberalism. In A. Kamp & P. Kelly (Eds.), A critical youth studies for the 21st century (pp. 223–239). Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
  27. Hallet, M. (2012). Reentry to what? Theorizing prisoner reentry in the jobless future. Critical Criminology, 20(3), 213–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hart, R. (1992). Children’s participation: From tokenism to citizenship (Vol. 4). Florence, Italy: UNICEF International Child Development Center.Google Scholar
  29. Healy, K. (2009). A case of mistaken identity: The social welfare professions and New Public Management. Journal of Sociology, 45(4), 401–418.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1440783309346476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Henriksen, A.-K., & Bengtsson, T. T. (2018). Trivializing violence: Marginalized youth narrating everyday violence. Theoretical Criminology, 22(1), 99–115.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1362480616671995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Heywood, A. (2003). Political ideologies: An introduction (3rd ed.). New York, USA: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  32. Holliday, I. (2000). Is the British state hollowing out? The Political Quarterly, 71(2), 167–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. International Institute of Restorative Practices. (2019). International Affiliates. https://www.iirp.edu/who-we-are/affiliates
  34. Joudo-Larsen, J. (2014). Restorative justice in the Australian criminal justice system. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Australian Institute of Criminology.Google Scholar
  35. Kim, W. C., & Mauborgne, R. (2003). Fair process: Managing in the knowledge economy. Harvard Business Review, 81(1), 1–12. http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA97467181&v=2.1&u=flinders&it=r&p=EAIM&sw=w&asid=86835ed16071c6867d4fa030637bfdad
  36. Lederach, J. P. (2005). The moral imagination: The art and soul of building peace: Oxford University Press, USA.Google Scholar
  37. Lohmeyer, B. A. (2017a). Restorative practices and youth work: Theorizing professional power relationships with young people. Young: Nordic Journal of Youth Research, 25(4), 375–390.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1103308816640080
  38. Lohmeyer, B. A. (2017b). Youth and their workers: The interacting subjectification effects of neoliberal social policy and NGO practice frameworks. Journal of Youth Studies, 20(12), 1263–1276.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2017.1321109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. MacDonald, R. (2016). Precarious work: The growing precarité of youth. In A. Furlong (Ed.), Routledge handbook of youth and young adulthood (2nd ed.). Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. McCulloch, J. (2004). Blue armies, khaki police and the cavalry on the new American frontier: Critical criminology for the 21st century. Critical Criminology, 12(3), 309–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mills, C. W. (1970). The sociological imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. O’Connell, T. (2018). The best is yet to come: Unlocking the true potential of restorative practices. In T. Gavrielides (Ed.), Routledge international handbook of restorative justice (pp. 422–441). London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pilotta, J. J. (2016). The entrepreneur as hero? In V. Berdayes & J. W. Murphy (Eds.), Neoliberalism, economic radicalism, and the normalisation of violence. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  44. Rhodes, R. A. W. (1994). The hollowing out of the state: The changing nature of the public service in Britain. The Political Quarterly, 65(2), 138–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ritchie, J., & O’Connell, T. (2001). Restorative justice and the need for restorative environments in bureaucracies and corporations. In H. Strang & J. Braithwaite (Eds.), Restorative justice and civil society (pp. 149–164). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Rittel, H. W. J., & Webber, M. M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4(2), 155–169.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01405730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Roberts, J. M., & Devine, F. (2003). The hollowing out of the welfare state and social capital. Social Policy & Society, 2(4), 309–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rowlands, J., & Rawolle, S. (2013). Neoliberalism is not a theory of everything: A Bourdieuian analysis of illusio in educational research. Critical Studies in Education, 54(3), 260–272.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17508487.2013.830631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Seibel, W., & Anheier, H. K. (1990). Sociological and political science approaches to the third sector. In W. Seibel & H. K. Anheier (Eds.), The third sector: Comparative studies of nonprofit organizations (Vol. 21, pp. 7). New York: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  50. Selsky, J. W., & Parker, B. (2005). Cross-sector partnerships to address social issues: Challenges to theory and practice. Journal of Management, 31(6), 849–873.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206305279601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Skelcher, C. (2000). Changing images of the state: Overloaded, hollowed-out, congested. Public Policy and Administration, 15(3), 3–19.  https://doi.org/10.1177/095207670001500302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Taylor, A. (2000). Hollowing out or filling in? Taskforces and the management of cross-cutting issues in British government. British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 2(1), 46–71.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-856X.00024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Taylor, T., Connaughton, P., de St Croix, T., Davies, B., & Grace, P. (2018). The impact of neoliberalism upon the character and purpose of English youth work and beyond. In P. Alldred, F. Cullen, K. Edwards, & D. Fusco (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of youth work practice (pp. 84–97). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Te Riele, K. (2006). Youth ‘at risk’: Further marginalizing the marginalized? Journal of education policy, 21(2), 129–145.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02680930500499968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Valentine, K. (2015). Complex needs and wicked problems: how social disadvantage became multiple. Social Policy and Society, 15(2), 237–249.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s1474746415000342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Van Wormer, K. (2009). Restorative justice as social justice for victims of gendered violence: A standpoint feminist perspective. Social Work, 54(2), 107–116.  https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/54.2.107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wachtel, T. (1997). Real justice. Pipersville, PA: Piper’s Press.Google Scholar
  58. Wachtel, T. (2012). Defining restorative. International Institute for Restorative Practices Graduate School (IIRP).Google Scholar
  59. Wachtel, T. (2013). Dreaming of a new reality: How restorative practices reduce crime and violence, improve relationships and strengthen civil society. Pipersville, PA, USA: Piper’s Press.Google Scholar
  60. Wacquant, L. (2001). The penalisation of poverty and the rise of neo-liberalism. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 9(4), 401–412.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1013147404519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wallace, J., & Pease, B. (2011). Neoliberalism and Australian social work: Accommodation or resistance? Journal of Social Work, 11(2), 132–142.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1468017310387318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Watts, R. (2013). On fictions and wicked problems: towards a social democratic criminology project in the age of neo-liberalism. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 2(2), 113–132.  https://doi.org/10.5204/ijcjsd.v2i2.103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Watts, R. (2015). On fictions and wicked problems in juvenile justice. In P. Kelly & A. Kamp (Eds.), A critical youth studies for the 21st century (pp. 151–166). Leiden, Boston: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organisation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Wenzel, M., Okimoto, T. G., Feather, N. T., & Platow, M. J. (2008). Retributive and restorative justice. Law and Human Behavior, 32(5), 375.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10979-007-9116-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. White, R., & Graham, H. (2013). Working with offenders: A guide to concepts and practices. Routledge.Google Scholar
  67. White, R., & Wyn, J. (2011). Youth and society: Exploring the social dynamics of youth experience (2nd ed.). South Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Woodley, N., & Henderson, A. (2014, 30 September). LNP backbencher Ewen Jones says six-month dole waiting period will leave young job-seekers with no time for Xbox and Cheezels. ABC News. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-09-30/dole-wait-will-breach-human-rights,-bipartisan-report-finds/5779810
  69. Wyn, J., & Woodman, D. (2007). Generation, youth and social change in Australia. Journal of Youth Studies, 9(5), 495–514.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13676260600805713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zehr, H. (1995). Changing lenses: A new focus for crime and justice. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press.Google Scholar
  71. Zehr, H. (2002a). Journey to belonging. In E. G. M. Weitekamp & H.-J. Kerner (Eds.), Restorative justice: Theoretical foundations (pp. 21–31). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  72. Zehr, H. (2002b). The little book of restorative justice: A bestselling book by one of the founders of the movement. Intercourse, PA: Good Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tabor, College of Higher EducationFlinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations