With the rapid development of human technology, we are continuously facing new problems and challenges. On the one hand are the limited natural resources, and on the other hand are the increasing demands for convenient lifestyle. It is not a good idea to sacrifice one aspect to satisfy the other, but we should seek a balance between sustainable development and the comfortable living concept. Thus, it becomes a very crucial task to explore the low-cost, large-scale, and environmentally friendly fabrication methods for wide applications. Electrospinning is a top-down method in which polymeric or melt components are drawn out from a solution system onto a collector by electrostatic force. In comparison with other methods, including drawing, template synthesis, chemical vapor deposition, and so on, electrospinning offers some attractive features. One of the most important advantages is its industrial scalability, which makes it possible to directly transfer the results from laboratory research to the industry. In general, the unique advantages of electrospun nanostructures, including high spatial interconnectivity, high porosity, and large surface-to-volume ratio, make it a promising fabrication method in a wide range of applications. This chapter covers aspects of information relating to electrospinning nanofibers, including the materials for nanofiber fabrication, processing mechanism and parameters of electrospinning techniques, special electrospinning techniques, and potential applications of electrospun nanofibers.