Advertisement

Myths and Legends in Destination Tourism Marketing: The Story of Hero and Leander—Canakkale, Turkey

  • Mustafa BozEmail author
Conference paper
  • 3 Downloads

Abstract

Today the tourism sector is changing. Tourists are more demanding. They want to have new experiences and to know more other cultures. Host communities are trying to create tourism products to meet new tourist demands and to compete with other destinations. For these reasons, cultural tourism is one of the most rapidly developing types of tourism. As a part of cultural tourism, myths and legends add value to the tourist experience, increase the attractiveness of destinations, and are promoted in destination marketing. The story of Hero and Leander is a folktale/myth throughout Europe, Egypt, and India. It has been the subject of numerous works of literature and art. For example, the earliest sources for this story are Roman (Vergil and Ovid). Shakespeare mentions it in the opening scene of “Two Gentlemen of Verona,” and the story is inspired by Lord Byron’s “Written After Swimming from Sestos to Abydos.” In this sense, the first part of the paper underlines the role and importance of myths and legends in attracting and welcoming tourists and offering them memorable experiences. In the second part of the paper, “The Story of Hero and Leander: Canakkale, Turkey” is examined as a case study.

Keywords

Myths and legends Destination marketing Hero and leander Cultural heritage Cultural tourism 

References

  1. Ailes, E. (2013). Loch Ness Monster: Is Nessie just a tourist conspiracy? http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-22125981. Accessed 20 March 2018.
  2. Arbach, M. (2019). Tangible cultural heritage. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/cairo/culture/tangible-cultural-heritage/. Accessed 02 January 2019.
  3. BBC (2016). History Walter Raleigh (c. 1552–1618). http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/raleigh_walter.shtml. Accessed 06 September 2016.
  4. BBC. (2017). Has the original Santa Claus been found in Turkey? http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-41504172. Accessed 10 December 2017.
  5. Byron, G. G. (1821). Lord Byron’s works. Vol. 1, Paris, sold by François Louis.Google Scholar
  6. Cambridge Dictionary (2018). Myths, legends. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/myth. Accessed 06 February 2018.
  7. Candrea, A. N., Ispas, A., Untaru, N., & Nechita, F. (2016). Marketing the Count’s way: how Dracula’s myth can revive Romanian tourism. Bulletin of the Transylvania University of Braşov Series V: Economic Sciences, 9(58), 83–90.Google Scholar
  8. Cosma, S., Pop, C., & Negrusa, A. (2007). Should Dracula myth be a brand to promote Romania as a tourism destination? Interdisciplinary Management Research, 3, 39–56.Google Scholar
  9. Diffen.com. (2017). Legend vs. myth. https://www.diffen.com/difference/Legend_vs_Myth. Accessed 09 July 2017.
  10. Encyclopedia Britannica (2016). Francisco-Gomez-de-Quevedo-y-Villegas. https://global.britannica.com/biography/Francisco-Gomez-de-Quevedoy-Villegas. Accessed 06 December 2016.
  11. Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2018). Legend literature. https://www.britannica.com/art/legend-literature. Accessed 10 February 2017.
  12. European Union. (2018). The European year of cultural heritage 2018. http://europa.eu/cultural-heritage/about. Accessed 27 December 2018.
  13. Gabbatt, A. (2017). Santa Claus, Indiana gets 20,000 letters a year—and ‘elves’ reply to all of them. https://www.theguardian.com/usnews/2017/dec/09/santa-claus-indiana-gets-20000-letters-a-year-and-elves-reply-to-allof-them. Accessed 10 December 2017.
  14. George, E. W. (2010). Intangible cultural heritage, ownership, copyrights, and tourism. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 4(4), 376–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Golahny, A. (1990). Rubens’ Hero and Leander and its poetic progeny. Yale University Art Gallery Bulletin, ISSN, 0360–3180, 21–37.Google Scholar
  16. Handwerk, B. (2017). Saint Nicholas to Santa: The surprising origins of Mr. Claus. https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/12/131219-santa-claus-origin-history-christmas-facts-st-nicholas/ Accessed 10 December 2017.
  17. Harrow, S. (2016). British sporting literature and culture in the long eighteenth century. 1st ed., Routledge, 298.Google Scholar
  18. Hovi, T. (2014). Heritage through fiction. Dracula tourism in Romania. Ph.D. thesis. Turun Yliopiston Julkaisuja—Annales Universitatis Turkuensis, Turku.Google Scholar
  19. Hughes, D. (2018). Is the Loch Ness Monster real? Sightings, pictures, Nessie theories, myths and facts. https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/2086120/loch-ness-monster-photos-sightings-theories/. Accessed 10 March 2018.
  20. ITB. (2018). World travel trends report 2016/2017. Prepared by IPK International on behalf of ITB Berlin—the world’s leading travel trade show.Google Scholar
  21. Johnson, K. J. (2009). Love, lust and literature in the late sixteenth century. Electronic Theses & Dissertations. Paper 165, Georgia Southern University.Google Scholar
  22. Kearney, A. (2009). Intangible cultural heritage: Global awareness and local interest. In L. Smith & A. Natsuko (Eds.), Intangible Heritage (pp. 209–227). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Kurin, R. (2004). Safeguarding intangible cultural heritage in the 2003 UNESCO convention: A critical appraisal. Museum International, No. 221–222, 56 (1–2), 66–77.Google Scholar
  24. Lenihan, W. S. (1969). Marlowe’s Hero and Leander: Theme and form. Retrospective Theses and Dissertations, Paper 16091. Iowa State University.Google Scholar
  25. Lowenthal, D. (2005). Natural and cultural heritage. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 11(1), 81–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mellan, J. (2013). 16 destinations for myths, legends and folklore. http://www.femalefirst.co.uk/travel/16-destinations-for-myths-legends-andfolklore-275803.html. Accessed 10 March 2018.
  27. Minchin, E. (2016). Remembering Leander: the long history of the Dardanelles swim. Classical Receptions Journal, 8(2), 276–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Morton, B. (2008). Nessie is much more than a monster to us. https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2008/nov/16/scotland-tourism-loch-ness-monster. Accessed 20 March 2018.
  29. Navracsics, T. (2018). Tourism and culture synergies, Foreword. UNWTO, Madrid,  https://doi.org/10.18111/9789284418978.
  30. Norwood, F. (1950). Hero and Leander. Phoenix, Classical Association of Canada, (1) (Summer), 9–20.Google Scholar
  31. Oh, H., Fiore, A. M., & Jeoung, M. (2007). Measuring experience economy concepts: Tourism applications. Journal of Travel Research, 46, 119–132.Google Scholar
  32. Park, H. Y. (2010). Heritage tourism: Emotional journeys into nationhood. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(1), 116–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pearce, S. M. (2000). The making of cultural heritage. Research report. Avrami, E., Mason, R., & Marta de la T. Values and Heritage Conservation. Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 59–64.Google Scholar
  34. Pérez-Aranda, J. R., Guerreiro, M., & Mendes, J. (2015). Are myths and legends used in tourism communication as a resource? The case of Algarve online brochures. Enlightening tourism. Pathmaking Journal, 5(1), 65–99.Google Scholar
  35. Razak, N. A., & Romle, A. R. (2016). Representation of native myths and legends and cultural values in the Malaysian tourism promotional brochures. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, 11(11), 1379–1383.Google Scholar
  36. Sagona, A., Atabay, M., Mackie, C. J., McGibbon, I., & Reid, R. (eds.) (2016). Anzac battlefield: A Gallipoli landscape of war and memory. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. SAHO. (2017). Definition of natural and cultural heritage sites. http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/heritage-sites. Accessed 10 December 2017.
  38. Skagen-tourist.dk. (2018). Santa Claus—myths and facts. https://www.skagen-tourist.dk/ln-int/toppenafdanmark/santa-claus-myths-and-facts. Accessed 20 March 2018.
  39. Spiegelman, W. (2009). Seven pleasures: Essays on ordinary happiness. MacMillan. 207.Google Scholar
  40. St. Nicholas Center (2018). Who is St. Nicholas. http://www.stnicholascenter.org/pages/who-is-st-nicholas/. Accessed 10 March 2018.
  41. Stoleriu, O., & Ibanescu, B. (2014). Dracula tourism in Romania: From national to local tourism strategies. SGEM International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conferences on Social Sciences and Arts. ISBN 978-619-7105-26-1.Google Scholar
  42. Tikkanen, A. (2017). Loch Ness monster. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Loch-Ness-monster-legendary-creature. Accessed 10 March 2018.
  43. Tjarks, L. (1981). Tragic fate in Marlowe and Chapman’s Hero and Leander. Brno Studies in English 14.Google Scholar
  44. UNWTO. (2012). Tourism and Intangible cultural heritage. Madrid: UNWTO.Google Scholar
  45. UNWTO. (2017). Tourism highlights. http://www.eunwto.org/doi/book/10.18111/9789284419029. Accessed 03 March 2018.
  46. UNWTO (2018). Tourism and culture synergies, UNWTO, Madrid,  https://doi.org/10.18111/9789284418978.
  47. UNWTO & UNESCO. (2017). Muscat Declaration on Tourism and Culture: Fostering Sustainable Development. Second UNWTO/UNESCO World Conference on Tourism and Culture: Fostering Sustainable Development. Muscat, 11–12 December 2017.Google Scholar
  48. Visit Scotland. (2016). New Nessie campaign to inspire more international tourists to visit Inverness & Loch Ness. http://mediacentre.visitscotland.org/pressreleases/new-nessie-campaign-to-inspiremore-international-tourists-to-visit-inverness-loch-ness-1345089. Accessed 20 March 2018.
  49. Visitfinland. (2018). Meet Santa Claus. http://www.visitfinland.com/article/meet-santa-claus/. Accessed 10 March 2018.
  50. Waters, E. N. (1967). Victor Herbert: Romantic idealist. Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, 50(2), April. 125–132.Google Scholar
  51. Whychristmas.com. (2018). St. Nicholas, Santa Claus & Father Christmas. https://www.whychristmas.com/customs/fatherchristmas.shtml. Accessed 03 March 2018.
  52. Witte, W. (2016). Friedrich Schiller. Encyclopaedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Friedrich-Schiller. Accessed 10 November 2016.
  53. Yuan, W. (2008). The conservation of intangible heritage. ICOMOS 16th General Assembly and International Scientific Symposium, 29 September–04 October 2008, Québec City, Canada.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Canakkale Onsekiz Mart UniversityCanakkaleTurkey

Personalised recommendations