Advertisement

Conceptual Frameworks

  • Sanjay Kumar PradhanEmail author
Chapter
  • 7 Downloads

Abstract

The chapter tries to explain the concept of geopolitics of energy, energy security, and energy factor in international relations. This chapter further contextualizes these aspects in the Indian scenario. Since oil and natural gas is a strategic resource and global competition happens for this limited resource, energy geopolitics tries to explain both conflicting and complimentary interest of the both energy supplier and energy importing countries and regions in the world. Geopolitics and internal domestic issues many times in the oil-rich countries result in war, civil war, low-intensity warfare and oil black market, which have adverse impact on oil production, refining and supply process. Energy security tries to explain these aspects in the global energy trade and investment. Since India is the third largest importer and consumer of oil and natural gas energy, energy security has been well integrated to the fulcrum of India’s national security. As there has been dependence and interdependence among the oil-producing and oil-consuming countries, the chapter tries to explain cooperation or conflict among these nations through various perspectives in international relations, such as realism, structural realism, neoliberal institutionalism, complex interdependence and international political economy. Along with these aspects, the chapter will focus on energy security from the Indian perspective which covers India’s energy requirements, origin and growth of India’s oil and natural gas sector, India in the global energy trade and investment, and the policy perspectives to ensure energy security for India.

References

  1. 1.
    Klare, Michael T. 2002. Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict. New York: Henry Holt and Company.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Waltz, Kenneth N. 1979. Theory of International Politics. Long Grove: Waveland Press.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mearsheimer, J.J. 2001. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Collins, Alan (ed.). 2016. Contemporary Security Studies, 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Buzan, B., O.J. Waever, and De Wilde. 1998. Security: A New Framework for Analysis, 7. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buzan, B. 2007. People, States and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era, 2nd ed. Colchester: ECPR Press.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burchill, Scott. 2005. Liberalism. In Theories of International Relations, ed. Scott Burchill, Andrew Linklater, et al., 55–83. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Howard, M. 1978. War and the Liberal Conscience, 29, 37. London: Oxford Press.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Krasner, Stephen. 2009. In Fifty Key Thinkers in International Relations, ed. Martin Griffiths, Steven C. Roach, and M.Scott Soloman, 42–50. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jackson, Robert, and George Sorensen. 2010. Introduction to International Relations: Theories and Approaches. New York: Oxford.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Keohane, R.O. 1989. International Institutions and State Power: Essays in International Relations Theory. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Keohane, Robert O. 2009. In Fifty Key Thinkers in International Relations, ed. M. Griffiths, S.C. Roach, and M.Scott Soloman, 109. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Keohane, Robert O. 1984. After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Keohane, Robert. 1988. International Institutions: Two Approaches. International Studies Quarterly 32: 383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rosecrance, Richard. 1986. The Rise of the Trading State: Commerce and Conquest in the Modern World. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sutch, Peter, and Juanita Elias. 2007. The Basics: International Relations, 64–81. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rosecrance, Richard. 2009. In Fifty Key Thinkers in International Relations, ed. Martin Griffiths, Steven C. Roach, and M.Scott Soloman. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sterling-Folker, Jennifer. 2007. Liberalism. In Making Sense of International Relations Theory, ed. Jennifer Sterling-Folker, 55–61. New Delhi: Viva Books.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sterling-Folker, Jennifer. 2007. Game Theory. In Making Sense of International Relations Theory, ed. Jennifer Sterling-Folker, 93–97. New Delhi: Viva Books.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dougherty, J.E., and R.L. Pfaltzgraff Jr. 1997. Contending Theories of International Relations: A Comprehensive Survey, 4th ed, 403. New York: Addison-Wesley Longman.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Andrew-Speed, P. 2006. The Energy Charter Treaty and International Petroleum Politics. http://www.dundee.ac.uk/cepmlp/journal/html/article3-6.htm.
  22. 22.
    Strange, S. 1988. States and Markets, 27–29. London: Pinter Publishers.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Buchan, D. 2002. The Threat Within: Deregulation and Energy Security. Survival 44 (3): 109.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dietl, Gulshan. 2004. New Threats to Oil and Gas in West Asia: Issues in India’s Energy Security. Strategic Analysis 28 (3).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yergin, Daniel, and Thane Gustafson. 1995. Russia 2010 and What it Means for the World, 295–302. New York: Vintage. 317–322.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    International Energy Security. 2015. Energy Charter Secretariat, 2015.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Luft, G., A. Korin, and E. Gupta. 2011. Energy Security and Climate Change: A Tenuous Link. In The Routledge Handbook of Energy Security, ed. B.K. Sovacool, 43–55. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cherp, Aleh, and Jewell, Jessica. The Concept of Energy Security: Beyond the Four As. Energy Policy 75 (3): 415–421. IDEAS. https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/enepol/v75y2014icp415-421.html.
  29. 29.
    Jewel, Jessica. 2011. The IEA Model of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) Primary Energy Sources and Secondary Fuels. Working Paper, International Energy Agency. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254439192_The_IEA_Model_of_Short-Term_Energy_Security_MOSES_Primary_Energy_Sources_and_Secondary_Fuels.
  30. 30.
    International Energy Charter. 2015. Energy Charter Secretariat, May 2015.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bazilian, M., B. Sovacool, and M. Miller. 2013. Linking Energy Independence to Energy Security. International Association for Energy Economics, 17–21. https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/climatechange/resources/…/Bazilian_Security_IAEE.pdf.
  32. 32.
    Winzer, Christian. 2011. Conceptualizing Energy Security. Cambridge Working Paper in Economics, 1–36.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yergin, Daniel. 2012. The Quest: Energy, Security, and the Remaking of the Modern World, 268–269. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sahay, Shashi, and Vipra Swami Arya. 2016. India’s Quest for Energy Security and Its West Asia Policy. http://digitalrepository.unm.edu/hprc/2016/papers/12/.
  35. 35.
    Energy Security Outlook. 2015. Defining a Secure and Sustainable Energy Future for India, 3. New Delhi: TERI Press.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dasgupta, B. 1971. The Oil Industry in India. London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mistry, Dinshaw. 2010. Domestic and International Influences on India’s Energy Policy, 1947–2008. In India’s Foreign Policy: Retrospect and Prospect, ed. Sumit Ganguly. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mehrotra, Santosh. 1990. India and the Soviet Union: Trade and Technology Transfer, 116–117. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Petleva, Vitaly, and Toporkov. 2019. Interview of M/o Petroleum and Natural Gas to Vedomosti, Embassy of India. Moscow, Russia, September 4. https://indianembassy-moscow.gov.in/press-releases-04-09-19.php.
  40. 40.
  41. 41.
    Budget. 2017. Arun Jaitley halves import duty on LNG to 2.5 per cent. The Economic Times, February 1. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/energy/oil-gas/budget-2017-arun-jaitley-halves-import-duty-on-lng-to-2-5-per-cent/articleshow/56923207.cms.
  42. 42.
    Sikri, Rajiv. 2009. Challenge and Strategy: Rethinking India’s Foreign Policy, 205–206. New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sen, Anupama. 2015. Gas Pricing Reform in India: Implications for the Indian Gas Landscape. OIES Paper. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. http://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/NG-96.pdf.
  44. 44.
    Grigas, Agnia. 2017. The New Geopolitics of Natural Gas, 253. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Blank, Stephen. 2005. India’s Energy Offensive in Central Asia. Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst, Central Asia-Caucasus Institute 6 (5): 1–25. www.cacianalyst.org/resources/pdf/issues/20050309Analyst.pdf.
  46. 46.
    Mistry, Dinshaw. 2013. Domestic and International Influences on India’s Energy Policy, 1947–2008. In India’s Foreign Policy: Retrospect and Prospect, ed. Sumit Ganguly, 325–326. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Aiyar, Mani Shankar. 2006. Asia’s Quest for Energy Security. Frontline 23 (3): 11–24.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bedi, Rahul. 2002. India and Central Asia. Frontline 19 (19): 38–41.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Laxmi, Vijay. 2007. India-Central Asia Relations: Quest for Energy Security. Dialogue 8(4). http://www.asthabharati.org/Dia_Apr07/laxm.htm.
  50. 50.
    Pradhan, S.K. 2015. Shale Gas in Indo-US Cooperation. Geopolitics V (IX): 62–65.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dietl, Gulshan. 2004. New Threats to Oil and Gas in West Asia: Issues in India’s Energy Security. Strategic Analysis 28 (3): 383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ebinger, Charles K. 2013. Energy and Security in South Asia: Cooperation or Conflict, 132. Delhi: Foundation.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Patel, Deepak. 2017. Two More Strategic Oil Reserves to be Built. The Indian Express, February 2. http://indianexpress.com/article/business/budget/two-more-strategic-oil-reserves-to-be-built-odisha-bikaner-4503370/.
  54. 54.
    Mellish, Mike. 2015. China and India Drive recent Changes in World Coal Trade. EIA, November 20. http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=23852&src=email.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International RelationsPandit Deendayal Petroleum UniversityGandhinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations