Thermal Conductivity Analysis of Graphene Oxide Nanofluid Using Three-Level Factorial Design

  • Munish Gupta
  • Jodh SinghEmail author
  • Harmesh Kumar
  • Rajesh Kumar
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)


Nanofluids improve the performance of thermal systems. Graphene oxide nanoparticles were characterized to confirm the structure, using X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Water-based grapheme oxide nanofluids were synthesized. Three-level (32) factorial design was used to examine the effects changes in temperature and nanoparticle loading on the thermal conductivity of prepared nanofluids. Significance of model used was tested using analysis of variance at a 95.0% confidence interval. The results revealed that thermal conductivity varies directly with temperature as well as weight concentration. 30.4% thermal conductivity enhancement is observed at optimum conditions, i.e. high level of temperature (60 °C) and medium level of weight concentration (0.1 wt%).


Graphene oxide Nanofluids Heat transfer Thermal conductivity Factorial design 



The Authors wish to thank Chairperson, SSB UICET, PU, Chandigarh and Director, CIL, PU, Chandigarh, for their assistance in providing the necessary setup to conduct this work and testing facility.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  • Munish Gupta
    • 1
  • Jodh Singh
    • 2
    Email author
  • Harmesh Kumar
    • 3
  • Rajesh Kumar
    • 3
  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentGJUSTHisarIndia
  2. 2.SSB University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Panjab UniversityChandigarhIndia
  3. 3.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentUIET, Panjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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