Maiden Application of Hybrid Crow-Search Algorithm with Particle Swarm Optimization in LFC Studies

  • Naladi Ram BabuEmail author
  • Lalit Chandra Saikia
  • Sanjeev Kumar Bhagat
  • Arindita Saha
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1164)


This article presents the hybridization of crow-search algorithm with particle swarm optimization (hCA-PSO) in load frequency control (LFC) studies. A new ancillary controller entitled as tilt-integral-derivative with filter (TIDN) is proposed and its dynamic performance is found to be better over PID, PIDN. The proposed hCA-PSO technique is used to optimize the parameters of controller and is found to be better over CA and PSO algorithms in terms of setting time. It is also observed that the responses with AC-HVDC tie-line are found to be better over AC tie-line. Moreover, sensitivity analysis reveals that TIDN controller parameters optimized by hCA-PSO are found to be robust at system varied conditions like loading and inertia conditions. Furthermore, the superiority of hCA-PSO is analyzed with system comprising TIDN and thermal-HVDC in terms of dynamic performance and convergence over CA and PSO.


LFC AC-HVDC tie-line hCA-PSO Sensitivity analysis and TIDN controller 


  1. 1.
    O.I. Elgerd, Electric Energy Systems Theory: An Introduction (McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2007)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control (McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 1993)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. Tasnin, L.C. Saikia, Performance comparison of several energy storage devices in deregulated AGC of a multi-area system incorporating geothermal power plant. IET Renew. Power Gener. 12(7), 761–772 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M.J. Chandrashekar, R. Jayapal, Design and comparison of I, PI, PID and fuzzy logic controller on AGC deregulated power system with HVDC link, in International conference on Circuits, Controls and Communications (Bengaluru, 2013), pp. 1–6Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    K.K. Challa, P.S.N. Rao, Analysis and design of controller for two area thermal-hydro-gas AGC system, in International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems & Power India (New Delhi, 2010), pp. 1–4Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    T.A. Kumar, V.S. Krishna, N.V. Ramana, Improvement of dynamic performance of three area thermal system under deregulated environment using AC tieline parallel with HVDC link, in International Conference on Power and Energy Systems (Chennai, 2011), pp. 1–6Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y. Arya, N. Kumar, AGC of a multi-area multi-source hydrothermal power system interconnected via AC/DC parallel links under deregulated environment. Electr. Power Energy Syst. 75, 127–138 (2016)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Y. Arya, Impact of hydrogen aqua electrolyzer-fuel cell units on automatic generation control of power systems with a new optimal fuzzy TIDF-II controller. Renew. Energy 139, 468–482 (2019)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y. Arya., N. Kumar, AGC of a two-area multi-source power system interconnected via AC/DC parallel links under restructured power environment. Optimal Control Appl. Meth. 37(4), 1–18 (2015)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    O.D. Adeuyi, M. Cheah-Mane, J. Liang et al., Frequency support from modular multilevel converter based multi-terminal HVDC schemes. Power Energy Soc. Gen. Meet. 1–5 (2015)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. Rakhshani, P. Rodriguez, Inertia emulation in AC/DC interconnected power systems using derivative technique considering frequency measurement effects. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 32(5), 3338–3351 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. Sharma, I. Nasiruddin, K.R. Niazi, Robust automatic generation control regulators for a two-area power system interconnected via AC/DC tie-lines considering new structures of matrix Q. IET Gener. Trans. Distrib. 10(14), 3570–3579 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Morsali, K. Zare, M.T. Hagh, AGC of interconnected multi-source power system with considering GDB and GRC nonlinearity effects, in 6th Conference on Thermal Power Plants (Tehran, 2016), pp. 12–17Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    K. Jagatheesan, B. Anand, S. Samanta, N. Dey, A.S. Ashour, V.E. Balas, Design of a proportional-integral-derivative controller for an automatic generation control of multi-area power thermal systems using firefly algorithm. IEEE/CAA J. Automatica Sinica 6(2), 503–515 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    I. Pan, S. Das, Fractional order AGC for distributed energy resources using robust optimization. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 7(5), 2175–2186 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    G. Sharma, K.R. Niazi, R.C. Bansal, Adaptive fuzzy critic based control design for AGC of power system connected via AC/DC tie-lines. IET Gener. Trans. Distrib. 11(2), 560–569 (2017)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    P.N. Topno, S. Chanana, Tilt integral derivative control for two-area load frequency control problem, in 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Engineering & Computational Sciences, pp. 1–6 (2015)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. Nanda, S. Mishra, L.C. Saikia, Maiden application of bacterial foraging-based optimization technique in multiarea automatic generation control. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 24(2), 602–609 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Raju, L.C. Saikia, N. Sinha, D. Saha, Application of antlion optimizer technique in restructured automatic generation control of two-area hydro-thermal system considering governor dead band, in Innovations in Power and Advanced Computing Technologies (Vellore, 2017), pp. 1–6Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    K.-W. Huang, Z.-X. Wu, CPO a crow particle optimization algorithm. Int. J. Comput. Intell. Syst. 12(1), 426–435 (2018)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    R.K. Sahu et al., Optimal gravitational search algorithm for automatic generation control of interconnected power system. Ains Shams Eng. J. (5), 721–733 (2014)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    N. Rambabu, L.C. Saikia, Automatic generation control of a solar thermal and dish-stirling solar thermal system integrated multi-area system incorporating accurate HVDC link model using crow search algorithm optimised FOPI Minus FODF controller. IET Renew. Power Gener. 13(2), 2221–2231 (2019)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    D. Guha, P.K. Roy, S. Banerjee, Maiden application of SSA-optimised CC-TID controller for load frequency control of power systems. IET Gener. Trans. Distrib. 13(7), 1110–1120 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Rahman, L.C. Saikia, N. Sinha, Load Frequency control of a hydro-thermal system under deregulated environment using biogeography-based optimised three-degree-of freedom integralderivative controller. IET Gener. Trans. Distrib. 9(15), 2284–2293 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. Askarzadeh, A novel metaheuristic method for solving constrained engineering optimization problems: crow search algorithm. J. Comput. Struct. 169, 1–12 (2016).

Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naladi Ram Babu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lalit Chandra Saikia
    • 1
  • Sanjeev Kumar Bhagat
    • 1
  • Arindita Saha
    • 2
  1. 1.National Institute of TechnologySilcharIndia
  2. 2.Regent Education and Research Foundation Group of InstitutionsKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations