LFC of Thermal System with Combination of Renewable Energy Source and Ultra-Capacitor

  • Arindita SahaEmail author
  • Lalit Chandra Saikia
  • Naladi Ram Babu
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1164)


An effort is made to explore load frequency control (LFC) of uneven three-area multiple source schemes including thermal, solar thermal power plant (STPP) in addition ultra-capacitor (UC) considering generating rate constraint. An amalgamation of whole number order proportional+integral+derivative (PID) using filter (PIDN) with fractional-order integrator (FOI) controller (PIDN-FOI) is projected as second controller for the scheme. Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) finds its usage for concurrent optimization of controller gains along with parameters. The execution of PIDN-FOI is found enhanced compared to other typical controllers regarding less settling time, peak deviation and reduced oscillations. The analysis says that with the integration of STPP in all areas and UC in area-1 the scheme provides enhanced responses. Sensitivity analysis concludes that WOA optimized PIDN-FOI gains/other parameters at basic circumstances are robust to any alterations in scheme condition or factors and further reset is not required.


Generating rate constraint PIDN-FOI controller Solar thermal power plant Ultra-capacitor Whale optimization algorithm 


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Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arindita Saha
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lalit Chandra Saikia
    • 2
  • Naladi Ram Babu
    • 2
  1. 1.Regent Education and Research Foundation Group of InstitutionsKolkataIndia
  2. 2.National Institute of TechnologySilcharIndia

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