A Low-Power Ring Voltage-Controlled Oscillator with MOS Resistor Tuning for Wireless Application

  • Dileep DwivediEmail author
  • Manoj Kumar
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1164)


A low-power, single-output ring voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) has been presented in this paper. Circuit diagram for proposed VCO is designed in 0.18 μm CMOS process. For proposed ring VCO, a controllable delay cell has been implemented that consists of a three transistors NAND gate inverter with MOS resistive tuning element. Resistance variation of MOS transistors has been utilized to tune the frequency of the proposed VCO. Result shows that the proposed VCO operates from 1.251 to 1.884 GHz with the deviation in control voltage (VCT) from 0.6 to −0.6 V across the MOS transistors P3 and N2 with 1.8 V supply voltage (Vdd). Impact of Vdd variation on oscillation frequency also has been observed with different values of VCT. A tunable range of frequency has been obtained from 1.251 to 2.897 GHz with change in Vdd from 1.8 to 3 V for positive value of VCT. Further, output frequency shows variation from 1.795 to 2.943 GHz with change in Vdd from 1.8 to 3.0 V for negative value of VCT. The proposed VCO shows a phase noise of −91.77 dBc/Hz @1 MHz offset from carrier frequency with power consumption of 0.248 mW at 1.8 V Vdd. Figure of merit (FoM) of the proposed VCO is 162 dBc/Hz.


CMOS Low power MOS resistance Phase noise VCO 


  1. 1.
    S.J. Lee, B. Kim, K. Lee, A novel high-speed ring oscillator for multiphase clock generation using negative skewed delay scheme. IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 32(2), 289–291 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. Catli, M.M. Hella, A 0.5-V 3.6/5.2 GHz CMOS multi-band LC VCO for ultra low-voltage wireless applications, in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (2008), pp. 996–999Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R.B. Staszewski, P.T. Balsara, Phase-domain all-digital phase-locked loop. IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. II Exp. Briefs 52(3), 159–163 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Kumar, S.K. Arya, S. Pandey, Low power digitally controlled oscillator designs with a novel 3-transistor XNOR gate. J. Semicond. 33(3), 035001 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    L.S. De Paula, A.A. Susin, S. Bampi, A wide band CMOS differential voltage-controlled ring oscillator, in Proceedings of the 21st Annual Symposium on Integrated Circuits and System Design (2008), pp. 85–89Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    K. Roy, S.C. Prasad, Low Power CMOS Circuit Design (Wiley Pvt. Ltd., 2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M.J. Deen, M.H. Kazemeini, S. Naseh, Performance characteristics of an ultra-low power VCO, in Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, ISCAS’03, vol. 1 (2003), pp. I–IGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Kumar, S. Arya, S. Pandey, Ring VCO design with variable capacitance XNOR delay cell. J. Inst. Eng. (India): Series B 96(4), 371–379 (2015)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.K. Panigrahi, D.P. Acharya, Performance analysis and design of wideband CMOS voltage controlled ring oscillator, in 2010 5th International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems (2010), pp. 234–238Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    L. Xuemei, W. Zhigong, S. Lianfeng, Design and analysis of a three-stage voltage-controlled ring oscillator. J. Semicond. 34(11), 115003 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Z.Z. Chen, T.C. Lee, The design and analysis of dual-delay-path ring oscillators. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. 58(3), 470–478 (2010)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Choi, K. Lim, J. Laskar, A ring VCO with wide and linear tuning characteristics for a cognitive radio system, in 2008 IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 395–398Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    O. Nizhnik, R.K. Pokharel, H. Kanaya, K. Yoshida, Low noise wide tuning range quadrature ring oscillator for multi-standard transceiver. IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 19(7), 470–472 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M.L. Sheu, Y.S. Tiao, L.J. Taso, A 1-V 4-GHz wide tuning range voltage-controlled ring oscillator in 0.18 μm CMOS. Microelectron. J. 42(6), 897–902 (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University School of Information, Communication and Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha UniversityNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations