Advertisement

Long-Term Trend and Interannual to Decadal Variability in the Sea of Okhotsk

  • Takuya Nakanowatari
  • Humio MitsuderaEmail author
Chapter
  • 40 Downloads
Part of the Atmosphere, Earth, Ocean & Space book series (AEONS)

Abstract

In this article, we describe physical aspects of long-term variations in the Sea of Okhotsk. The maximum sea ice extent (MSIE) in the Sea of Okhotsk decreased at a rate of −8.7 ± 2.5% per decade from 1979 to 2010, which is the second largest fraction of ice reduction in the marginal seas of the Northern Hemisphere. The Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water (OSIW) on the isopycnal surface of 27.0σθ exhibits a remarkable warming trend, with a maximum value of 0.62 ± 0.18 °C over the last 50 years. Salinity of the dense shelf water (DSW) is a key parameter of the OSIW warming; DSW salinity decreases at a rate of −0.12 ± 0.08 over the last 50 years, caused by freshening of the surface salinity in the subarctic North Pacific, as well as reduction in ice production in the Sea of Okhotsk. Besides, interannual-to-decadal scale variations are evident in the MSIE, DSW salinity and OSIW temperature, and their mechanisms are discussed. Further, the sea level along the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, correlated with the wind-driven coastal current, exhibits coherent interannual variations. Effects of the 18.6-year-period nodal tide cycle, caused by strong tides along the Kuril Islands, are also discussed.

Keywords

Sea ice Dense shelf water Salinity Warming of the Okhotsk Sea intermediate water Coherent sea level variations 18.6-year-period nodal tide 

Notes

Acknowledgements

AMSR-E data was supplied by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency through the Arctic Data archive System (ADS), under the cooperation between National Institute of Polar Research and JAXA. We would thank Dr. Sasaki for providing us with data to redraw some figures. We would also thank Dr. Nishikawa for drawing figures. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (17H01156 and JP18H04909).

References

  1. Andreev AG, Kusakabe M (2001) Interdecadal variability in dissolved oxygen in the intermediate water layer of the Western Subarctic Gyre and Kuril Basin (Okhotsk Sea). J Geophys Res 28:2453–2456Google Scholar
  2. Barnston AG, Livezey RE (1987) Classification, seasonality and persistence of lowfrequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Mon Weather Rev 115:1083–1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bindoff NL, McDougall TJ (1994) Diagnosing Climate Change and ocean ventilation using hydrographic data. J Phys Oceanogr 24:1137–1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bond NA, Overland JE, Spillane M, Stabeno P (2003) Recent shifts in the state of the North Pacific. Geophys Res Lett 30:2183.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2003gl018597
  5. Csanady GT (1978) The arrested topography wave. J Phys Oceanogr 8:47–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cavalieri DJ, Parkinson CL (1987) On the relationship between atmospheric circulation and fluctuations in the sea ice extents of the Bering and Okhotsk seas. J Geophys Res 92:7141–7162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cavalieri DJ, Parkinson CL (2012) Arctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2010. The Cryosphere 6:g 881–889.  https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-6-881-2012
  8. Durack PJ, Wijffels SE (2010) Fifty-year trends in global ocean salinities and their relationship to broad-scale warming. J Clim 23:4342–4362.  https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3377.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Durack PJ, Wijffels SE, Matear RJ (2012) Ocean salinities reveal strong global water cycle intensification during 1950 to 2000. Science 336:455–458.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1212222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ebuchi N (2006) Seasonal and interannual variations in the East Sakhalin Current revealed by TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data. J Oceanogr 62:171–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gan B, Wu L, Jia F, Li S, Cai W, Nakamura H, Alexander MA, Miller AJ (2017) On the response of the Aleutian Low to greenhouse warming. J. Clim 30:3907–3925.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0789.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gladyshev S, Martin S, Riser S, Figurkin A (2000) Dense water production on the northern Okhotsk shelves: comparison of shipbased spring-summer observations for 1996 and 1997 with satellite observations. J Geophys Res 105:26,281–26,299.  https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JC000067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hill KL, Weaver AJ, Freeland HJ, Bychkov A (2003) Evidence of change in the Sea of Okhotsk: implications for the North Pacific. Atmos Ocean 41:49–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Honda M, Yamazaki K, Nakamura H, Takeuchi K (1999) Dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of atmospheric response to anomalous sea-ice extent in the Sea of Okhotsk. J Clim 12:3347–3358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Horel JD, Wallace JM (1981) Planetary-scale atmospheric phenomena associated with the Southern Oscillation. Mon Weather Rev 109:813–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hosoda S, Suga T, Shikama N, Mizuno K (2009) Global surface layer salinity change detected by Argo and its implication for hydrological cycle intensification. J Oceanogr 65:579–586.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-009-0049-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Inoue J, Ono J, Tachibana Y, Honda M, Iwamoto K, Fujiyoshi Y, Takeuchi K (2003) Characteristics of heat transfer over the ice-covered Sea of Okhotsk during cold air outbreaks. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 81:1057–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Isoda Y, Kuroda H, Myousyo T, Honda S (2003) Hydrographic feature of coastal Oyashio and its seasonal variation. Bull Coast Oceanogr 41:5–12 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  19. Isoguchi O, Kawamura H, Kono T (1997) A study on wind-driven circulation in the subarctic North Pacific using TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data. J Geophys Res 102:12,457–12,468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Isoguchi O, Kawamura H (2006) Seasonal to interannual variations of the western boundary current of the subarctic North Pacific by a combination of the altimeter and tide gauge sea levels. J Geophys Res 111:C04013.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JC003080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Itaki T, Ikehara K (2004) Middle to late Holocene changes of the Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water and their relation to atmospheric circulation. Geophys Res Lett 31:L24309.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL021384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ito T, Minobe S, Long MC, Deutsch C (2017) Upper ocean O2 trends: 1958–2015. Geophys Res Lett 44:4214–4223.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL073613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ito S, Uehara K, Miyao T, Miyake H, Yasuda I, Watanabe T, Shimizu Y (2004) Characteristics of SSH anomaly based on TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter and in situ measured velocity and transport of Oyashio on OICE. J Oceanogr 60:425–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Itoh M, Ohshima KI (2000) Seasonal variations of water masses and sea level in the southwestern part of the Okhotsk Sea. J Oceanogr 56:643–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Itoh M, Ohshima K, Wakatsuchi M (2003) Distribution and formation of Okhotsk Sea intermediate water: an analysis of isopycnal climatological data. J Geophys Res 108:3258.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JC001950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kashiwase H, Ohshima KI, Nihashi S (2014) Long-term variation in sea ice production and its relation to the intermediate water in the Okhotsk Sea. Prog Oceanogr 126:22–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kawasaki T, Hasumi H (2010) Role of localized mixing around the Kuril Straits in the Pacific thermohaline circulation. J Geophys Res 115:C11002.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JC006130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kimura N, Wakatsuchi M (1999) Processes controlling the advance and retreat of sea ice in the Sea of Okhotsk. J Geophys Res 104:11,137–11,150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kusaka A, Ono T, Azumaya T, Kasai H, Oguma S, Kawasaki Y, Hirakawa K (2009) Seasonal variations of oceanographic conditions in the continental shelf area off the eastern Pacific coast of Hokkaido, Japan. Oceanogr Jpn 18: 135–156 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  30. Martin S, Drucker R, Yamashita K (1998) The production of ice and dense shelf water in the Okhotsk Sea polynyas. J Geophys Res 103:27,771–27,782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Matsuda J, Mitsudera H, Nakamura T, Uchimoto K, Nakanowatari T, Ebuchi N (2009) Wind and buoyancy driven intermediate-layer overturning in the Sea of Okhotsk. Deep-Sea Research I 56:1401–1418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Matsuda J, Mitsudera H, Nakamura T, Sasajima Y, Hasumi H, Wakatsuchi M (2015) Overturning circulation that ventilates the intermediate layer of the Sea of Okhotsk and the North Pacific: the role of salinity advection. J Geophys Res Oceans 120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014JC009995
  33. Minobe S (1999) Resonance in bidecadal and pentadecadal climate oscillations over the North Pacific: role in climatic regime shifts. Geophys Res Lett 26:855–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mizuta G, Fukamachi Y, Ohshima KI, Wakatsuchi M (2003) Structure and seasonal variability of the East Sakhalin Current. J Phys Oceanogr 33:2430–2445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nakamura T, Awaji T (2004) Tidally induced diapycnal mixing in the Kuril Straits and its role in water transformation and transport: a three-dimensional nonhydrostatic model experiment. J Geophys Res 109:C09S07. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2003JC001850
  36. Nakamura T, Toyoda T, Ishikawa Y, Awaji T (2006a) Enhanced ventilation in the Okhotsk Sea through tidal mixing at the Kuril Straits. Deep-Sea Res I 53:425–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nakamura T, Toyoda T, Ishikawa Y, Awaji T (2006b) Effects of tidal mixing at the Kuril Straits on North Pacific ventilation: adjustment of the intermediate layer revealed from numerical experiments. J Geophys Res 111:C04003.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JC003142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nakanowatari T, Ohshima KI, Wakatsuchi M (2007) Warming and oxygen decrease of intermediate water in the northwestern North Pacific, originating from the Sea of Okhotsk. 1955–2004. Geophys Res Lett 34:L04602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028243
  39. Nakanowatari T, Ohshima KI, Nagai S (2010) What determines the maximum sea ice extent in the Sea of Okhotsk? Importance of ocean thermal condition from the Pacific. J Geophys Res 115:C12031.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009jc006070
  40. Nakanowatari T, Ohshima KI (2014) Coherent sea level variability in and around the Sea of Okhotsk. Prog Oceanogr 126:58–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nakanowatari T, Nakamura T, Uchimoto K, Uehara H, Mitsudera H, Ohshima KI, Hasumi H, Wakatsuchi M (2015a) Causes of the multidecadal-scale warming of the intermediate water in the Okhotsk Sea and Western Subarctic North Pacific. J Clim 28:714–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nakanowatari T, Mitsudera H, Motoi T, Ishikawa I, Ohshima KI, Wakatsuchi M (2015b) Multidecadal-scale freshening at the salinity minimum in the Western part of North Pacific: importance of wind-driven cross-gyre transport of subarctic water to the subtropical gyre. J Phys Oceanogr 45:988–1008.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-13-0274.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nakanowatari T, Nakamura T, Uchimoto K, Nishioka J, Mitsudera H, Wakatsuchi M (2017) Importance of Ekman transport and gyre circulation change on seasonal variation of surface dissolved iron in the western subarctic North Pacific. J Geophys Res 122:4364–4391.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JC012354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nihashi S, Ohshima KI, Tamura T, Fukamachi Y, Saitoh S (2009) Thickness and production of sea ice in the Okhotsk Sea coastal polynyas from AMSR-E. J Geophys Res 114:C10025.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JC005222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nishioka J, Ono T, Saito H, Nakatsuka T, Takeda S, Yoshimura T, Suzuki K, Kuma K, Nakabayashi S, Tsumune D, Mitsudera H, Johnson WK, Tsuda A (2007) Iron supply to the western subarctic Pacific: importance of iron export from the Sea of Okhotsk. J Geophys Res 112:C10012.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JC004055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nishioka J, Ono T, Saito H, Sakaoka K, Yoshimura T (2011) Oceanic iron supply mechanisms which support the spring diatom bloom in the Oyashio region, western subarctic Pacific. J Geophys Res 112:C10012.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JC006321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nishioka J, Nakatsuka T, Watanabe YW, Yasuda I, Kuma K, Ogawa H, Ebuchi N, Scherbinin A, Volkov YN, Shiraiwa T, Wakatsuchi M (2013) Intensive mixing along an island chain controls oceanic biogeochemical cycles. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gbc.20088
  48. Nishioka J, Nakatsuka T, Ono K, Volkov YN, Scherbinin A, Shiraiwa T (2014) Quantitative evaluation of Fe transport processes in the Sea of Okhotsk. Prog Oceanogr 126:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nishioka J, Obata H (2017) Dissolved iron distribution in the western and central subarctic Pacific: HNLC water formation and biogeochemical processes. Limnol Oceanogr 62:2004–2022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ogata T, Ueda H, Inoue T, Hayasaki M, Yoshida A, Watanabe S, Kira M, Ooshiro M, Kumai A (2014) Projected future changes in the Asian monsoon: a comparison of CMIP3 and CMIP5 model results. J Meteorol Soc Jpn Ser II 92:207–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ogi M, Tachibana Y (2006) Influence of the annual Arctic Oscillation on the negative correlation between Okhotsk Sea ice and Amur River discharge. Geophys Res Lett 33:L08709.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL025838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ohshima KI, Wakatsuchi M, Fukamachi Y, Mizuta G (2002) Near-surface circulation and tidal currents of the Okhotsk Sea observed with satellite-tracked drifters. J Geophys Res 107:3195.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JC001005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ohshima KI, Watanabe T, Nihashi S (2003) Surface heat budget of the Sea of Okhotsk during 1987–2001 and the role of sea ice on it. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 81:653–677.  https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.81.653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ohshima KI, Simizu D, Itoh M, Mizuta G, Fukamachi Y, Riser SC, Wakatsuchi M (2004) Sverdrup balance and the cyclonic gyre in the Sea of Okhotsk. J Phys Oceanogr 34:513–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ohshima KI, Nihashi S, Hashiya E, Watanabe T (2006) Interannual variability of sea ice area in the Sea of Okhotsk: importance of surface heat flux in fall. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 84:907–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ohshima KI, Nakanowatari T, Riser S, Wakatsuchi M (2010) Seasonal variation in the in- and outflow of the Okhotsk Sea with the North Pacific. Deep Sea Res II 57:1247–1256.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.DSR2.2009.12.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ohshima KI, Nakanowatari T, Riser S, Volkov YN, Wakatsuchi M (2014) Freshening and dense shelf water reduction in the Okhotsk Sea linked with sea ice decline. Prog Oceanogr 126:71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ono T, Midorikawa T, Watanabe YW, Tadokoro K, Saino T (2001) Temporal increases of phosphate and apparent oxygen utilization in the surface waters of western subarctic Pacific from 1968 to 1998. Geophys Res Lett 28:3285–3288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Osafune S, Yasuda I (2006) Bidecadal variability in the intermediate waters of the northwestern subarctic Pacific and the Okhotsk Sea in relation to 18.6 year period nodal tidal cycle. J Geophys Res 111:C05007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005JC003277
  60. Osafune S, Yasuda I (2012) Numerical study on the impact of the 18.6-year period nodal tidal cycle on water masses in the subarctic North Pacific. J Geophys Res 117:C05009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011JC007734
  61. Osafune S, Yasuda I (2013) Remote impacts of the 18.6 year period modulation of localized tidal mixing in the North Pacific. J Geophys Res Oceans 118:3128–3137.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrc.20230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Parkinson CL (1990) The impact of the Siberian high and Aleutian low on the sea-ice cover of the Sea of Okhotsk. Ann Glaciol 14:226–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Peterson TC, Vose RS (1997) An overview of the global historical climatology network temperature database. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 78:2837–2848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ray RD (2006) Decadal climate variability: is there a tidal connection? J Clim 20:3542–3560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rayner NA, Parker DE, Horton EB, Folland CK, Alexander LV, Rowell DP, Kent EC, Kaplan A (2003) Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J Geophys Res 108:4407.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Reynolds RW, Smith TM, Liu C, Chelton DB, Casey KS, Schlax MG (2007) Daily High-resolution-blended analyses for sea surface temperature. J Climate 20(22):5473–5496Google Scholar
  67. Rodionov SN, Bond NA, Overland JE (2007) The Aleutian Low, storm tracks, and winter climate variability in the Bering Sea. Deep-Sea Res. Part II 54:2560–2577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sakamoto K, Tsujino H, Nishikawa S, Nakano H, Motoi T (2010) Dynamics of the coastal Oyashio and its seasonal variation in a high-resolution Western North Pacific Ocean model. J Phys Oceanogr 40:1283–1301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sasaki YN, Katagiri Y, Minobe S, Rigor IG (2007) Autumn atmospheric preconditioning for interannual variability of wintertime sea-ice in the Okhotsk Sea. J Oceanogr 63:255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Screen JA (2017) Simulated atmospheric response to regional and Pan-Arctic Sea ice loss. J Clim 30:3945–3962.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0197.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Serreze MC, Barry RG (2011) Processes and impacts of Arctic amplification: a research synthesis. Glob Planet Change 77:85–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.03.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Shcherbina AY, Talley LD, Rudnick DL (2003) Direct observations of North Pacific ventilation: Brine rejection in the Okhotsk Sea. Science 302:1952–1955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shcherbina AY, Talley LD, Rudnick DL (2004a) Dense water formation on the northwestern shelf of the Okhotsk Sea: 1. Direct observations of brine rejection. J Geophys Res 109:C09S08.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JC002196
  74. Shcherbina AY, Talley LD, Rudnick DL (2004b) Dense water formation on the northwestern shelf of the Okhotsk Sea: 2. Quantifying the transports. J Geophys Res 109:C09S09.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JC002197
  75. Simizu D, Ohshima KI (2002) Barotropic response of the Sea of Okhotsk to wind forcing. J Oceanogr 58:851–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Stabeno PJ, Reed RK, Overland JE (1994) Lagrangian measurements in the Kamchatka Current and Oyashio. J Oceanogr 50:653–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. St. Laurent LC, Simmons HL, Jayne SR (2002) Estimating tidally driven mixing in the deep ocean. Geophys Res Lett 29:2106.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL015633
  78. Tachibana Y, Honda M, Takeuchi K (1996) The abrupt decrease of the sea ice over the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk in 1989 and its relation to the recent weakening of the Aleutian low. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 74:579–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tadokoro K, Ono T, Yasuda I, Osafune S, Shiomoto A, Sugisaki H (2009) Possible mechanisms of decadal-scale variation in PO4 concentration in the western North Pacific. Geophys Res Lett 36:L08606.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL037327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Talley LD, Nagata Y (1995) The Okhotsk Sea and Oyashio region. PICES Scientific Report No. 2, Sidney, B.C., Canada, 227 ppGoogle Scholar
  81. Tanaka Y, Yasuda I, Hasumi H, Tatebe H, Osafune S (2012) Effects of the 18.6-yr modulation of tidal mixing on the North Pacific Bidecadal climate variability in a coupled climate model. J Clim 25:7625–7642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Trenberth KE, Hurrell JW (1994) Decadal atmosphere-ocean variations in the Pacific. Clim Dyn 9:303–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Uchimoto K, Mitsudera H, Ebuchi N, Mizuta G (2008) Seasonal variations of the sea level in the eastern part of the Kuril Basin. Umi to Sora 84:93–99 (in Japanese with English abstract and figure captions)Google Scholar
  84. Uchimoto K, Nakamura T, Nishioka J, Mitsudera H, Misumi K, Tsumune D, Wakatsuchi M (2014) Simulation of high concentration of iron in dense shelf water in the Okhotsk Sea. Prog Oceanogr 126:194–210Google Scholar
  85. Uehara H, Kruts AA, Volkov YN, Nakamura T, Ono T, Mitsudera H (2012) A New climatology of the Okhotsk Sea derived from the FERHRI database. J Oceanogr 68:869–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Uehara H, Kruts AA, Mitsudera H, Nakamura T, Volkov YN, Wakatsuchi M (2014) Remotely propagating salinity anomaly varies the source of the North Pacific ventilation. Prog Oceanogr 126:80–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Uppala SM, Kållberg PW, Simmons AJ, Andrae U, da Costa Bechtold V, Fiorino M, Gibson JK, Haseler J, Hernandez A, Kelly GA, Li X, Onogi K, Saarinen S, Sokka N, Allan RP, Andersson E, Arpe K, Balmaseda MA, Beljaars ACM, Vande Berg L, Bidlot J, Bormann N, Caires S, Chevallier F, Dethof A, Dragosavac M, Fisher M, Fuentes M, Hagemann S, Hólm E, Hoskins BJ, Isaksen L, Janssen PAEM, Jenne R, McNally AP, Mahfouf J-F, Morcrette J-J, Rayner NA, Saunders RW, Simon P, Sterl A, Trenberth KE, Untch A, Vasiljevic D, Viterbo P, Woollen J (2005) The ERA-40 re-analysis. Q J R Meteorol Soc 131:2961–3012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Vigan M, Ohshima KI, Nakanowatari T, Riser S (2019) Seasonal changes of water mass, circulation and dynamic response in the Kuril Basin of the Sea of Okhotsk. Deep Sea Res Part I 144:115–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Xie P, Arkin PA (1997) Global precipitation: a 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 78:2539–2558Google Scholar
  90. Yagi M, Yasuda I, Tanaka T, Tanaka Y, Ono K, Ohshima KI, Katsumata K (2014) Re-evaluation of turbulent mixing vertical structure in the Bussol’ Strait and its impact on water masses in the Okhotsk Sea and the North Pacific. Prog Oceanogr 126:121–134.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2014.04.023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Yamazaki K (2000) Interaction between the wintertime atmospheric circulation and the variation in the sea ice extent of the Sea of Okhotsk (in Japanese with English abstract). Seppyo 62:345–354Google Scholar
  92. Yamamoto-Kawai M, Watanabe S, Tsunogai S, Wakatsuchi M (2004) Chlorofluorocarbons in the Sea of Okhotsk: ventilation of the intermediate water. Geophys Res 109.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JC001919
  93. Yasuda I (1997) The origin of the North Pacific intermediate water. J Geophys Res 102:893–910.  https://doi.org/10.1029/96JC02938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Yasunaka S, Nojiri Y, Nakaoka S, Ono T, Whitney FA, Telszewski M (2014) Mapping of sea surface nutrients in the North Pacific: basin-wide distribution and seasonal to interannual variability. J Geophys Res Oceans 119:7756–7771.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JC010318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. You Y, Suginohara N, Fukasawa M, Yasuda I, Kaneko I, Yoritaka H, Kawamiya M (2000) Roles of the Okhotsk Sea and Gulf of Alaska in forming the North Pacific intermediate water. J Geophys Res Oceans 105:3253–3280.  https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JC900304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Watanabe YW, Wakita M, Maeda N, Ono T, Gamo T (2003) Synchronous bidecadal periodic changes of oxygen, phosphate and temperature between the Japan Sea deep water and the North Pacific intermediate water. Geophys Res Lett 30:2273.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL018338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Yasuda I, Osafune S, Tatebe H (2006) Possible explanation linking 18.6-year period nodal tidal cycle with bi-decadal variations of ocean and climate in the North Pacific. Geophys Res Lett 33:L08606.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL025237
  98. Yasunaka S, Ono T, Nojiri Y, Whitney FA, Wada C, Murata A, Nakaoka S, Hosoda S (2016) Long‐term variability of surface nutrient concentrations in the North Pacific. Geophys Res Lett 43(7):3389–3397Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hokkaido National Fisheries Research Institute, Japan Fisheries Research and Education AgencyKushiroJapan
  2. 2.Pan Okhotsk Research Center, Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations