Trait Breeding and Plant Varietal Rights
- 14 Downloads
This chapter looks at the relationship between plant breeding and trait breeding. It details the problem of variety ownership boundaries and the concept of essentially derived varieties (EDV). The chapter looks at the impact of patented accelerated breeding methods. It looks at the technical distinctness, uniformity, and stability (DUS) requirements of the UPOV system which largely rely on morphological (phenotypic) traits irrespective of their value for cultivation and use of a newly bred variety. The chapter examines the Australian approach for resolving varietal disputes and concludes with an examination of the challenges of genome editing technologies.
KeywordsTrait breeding UPOV requirements Essentially derived variety Accelerated breeding Genome editing
- ASTA, American Seed Trade Association. (2004). ASTA position statement on intellectual property rights for the seed industry. https://www.betterseed.org/the-issues/intellectual-property/asta-position-statement/. Accessed 1 Jan 2020.
- Heckenberger, M. (2004). Identification of essentially derived varieties in maize (Zea mays L.) using molecular markers, morphological traits, and heterosis. Ph.D. thesis, University of Hohenheim, https://opus.uni-hohenheim.de/hoptest/volltexte/2004/64/pdf/Komplettversion_3.pdf#page=40. Accessed 1 Jan 2020.
- ISF, International Seed Federation. (2012). ISF view on intellectual property. https://www.worldseed.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/View_on_Intellectual_Property_2012.pdf. Accessed 1 Jan 2020.
- ISF, International Seed Federation. (2014). Guidelines for the handling of a dispute on essential derivation in maize lines. https://www.worldseed.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/ISF_Guidelines_Disputes_EDV_Maize_2014.pdf. Accessed 1 Jan 2020.
- Janis, M. D., & Smith, S. (2007). Technological change and the design of plant variety protection regimes. Chicago-Kent Law Review, 82(3), 1557–1615.Google Scholar
- Oxfam. (2018). The status of patenting plants in the Global South. The Hague, The Netherlands: Oxfam Novib.Google Scholar
- Prifti, V. (2017). The breeder’s exception to patent rights as a new type of research exception. Rights and Science, 109–116. https://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/6178810.pdf
- Smith, S., Bubeck, D., Nelson, B., et al. (2015). Genetic diversity and modern plant breeding. In M. Ahuja & S. Jain (Eds.), Genetic diversity and erosion in plants (Sustainable Development and Biodiversity, Vol 7). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
- UPOV, International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants. (2013). Guidance on the use of biochemical and molecular markers in the examination of distinctness, uniformity and stability (DUS). TGP/15. https://www.upov.int/edocs/tgpdocs/en/tgp_15.pdf. Accessed 1 Jan 2020.
- UPOV, International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants. (2014). The use of molecular markers (SNP) for maize DUS testing. BMT/14/10. https://www.upov.int/edocs/mdocs/upov/en/bmt_14/bmt_14_10.pdf. Accessed 1 Jan 2020.
- UPOV, International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants. (2017). Explanatory notes on essential derived varieties under the 1991 Act of the UPOV convention. UPOV/EXN/EDV/2. https://www.upov.int/edocs/expndocs/en/upov_exn_edv.pdf. Accessed 1 Jan 2020.
- UPOV, International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants. (2018). Use of SNP markers for soybean variety protection purposes in Argentina. https://www.upov.int/edocs/mdocs/upov/en/bmt_17/bmt_17_22.pdf. Accessed 1 Jan 2020.
- Van Wijk, A., & Louwaars, N. (2014). Framework for the introduction of plant Breeder’s rights: Guidance for practical implementation. Roelofarendsveen, The Netherlands: Naktuinbouw.Google Scholar