Advertisement

Impact and Fate of Microplastics in the Riverine Ecosystem

  • Dhruba Jyoti SarkarEmail author
  • Soma Das Sarkar
  • Santanu Mukherjee
  • Basanta Kumar Das
Chapter
  • 2 Downloads
Part of the Springer Transactions in Civil and Environmental Engineering book series (STICEE)

Abstract

In the recent decade, there is a global concern regarding the abundance of microplastics (MPs) and their ill effects in natural ecosystems. Due to their ill effects towards aquatic biota and possible hazards to human health, MPs are included in the class of ‘contaminant of emerging concern’. Besides marine waters, they are currently being assessed in inland waters including rivers which are being considered as the single most important source of MPs in the marine environment. This chapter tries to emphasise various processes through which MPs enter into the river ecosystems and the fate of the plastic particles thereafter. Moreover, the ecotoxic effect of MPs towards the aquatic biota, their detection techniques and possible risk management has also been discussed. The transport and fate analysis of the plastic particles through river is of highly important in the present day context to establish their abundance and to develop possible mitigation strategies to reduce human health hazard.

References

  1. Andrady AL (2011) Microplastics in the marine environment. Mar Pollut Bull 62(8):1596–1605Google Scholar
  2. Ani E-C, Wallis S, Kraslawski A, Agachi PS (2009) Development, calibration and evaluation of two mathematical models for pollutant transport in a small river. Environ Model Softw 24:1139–1152Google Scholar
  3. Avio CG, Gorbi S, Milan M, Benedetti M, Fattorini D, D’Errico G, Pauletto M, Bargelloni L, Regoli F (2015) Pollutants bioavailability and toxicological risk from microplastics to marine mussels. Environ Pollut 198:211–222Google Scholar
  4. Bao LJ, Xu SP, Liang Y, Zeng EY (2012) Development of a low-density polyethylene-containing passive sampler for measuring dissolved hydrophobic organic compounds in open waters. Environ Toxicol Chem 31(5):1012–1018Google Scholar
  5. Bern L (1990) Size-related discrimination of nutritive and inert particles by freshwater zooplankton. J Plankton Res 12(5):1059–1067Google Scholar
  6. Besseling E, Wegner A, Foekema EM, van den Heuvel-Greve MJ, Koelmans A (2013) Effects of microplastic on fitness and PCB bioaccumulation by the lugworm Arenicola marina (L.) Environ. Sci Technol 47:593–600Google Scholar
  7. Besseling E, Wang B, Lürling M, Koelmans AA (2014) Nanoplastic affects growth of S. obliquus and reproduction of D. magna. Environ Sci Technol 48:12336–12343Google Scholar
  8. Brandl F, Bertrand N, Lima EM, Langer R (2015) Nanoparticles with photo induced precipitation for the extraction of pollutants from water and soil. Nat Commun 6:7765Google Scholar
  9. Brennecke D, Duarte B, Paiva F, Caçador I, Canning-Clode J (2016) Microplastics as vector for heavy metal contamination from the marine environment. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 178:189–195Google Scholar
  10. Brown PP, Lawler DF (2003) Sphere drag and settling velocity revisited. J Environ Eng 129:222–231Google Scholar
  11. Browne MA, Dissanayake A, Galloway TS, Lowe DM, Thompson RC (2008) Ingested microscopic plastic translocates to the circulatory system of the mussel, Mytilus edulis (L.) Environ. Sci Technol 42:5026–5031Google Scholar
  12. Browne MA, Crump P, Niven SJ, Teuten E, Tonkin A, Galloway T, Thompson R (2011) Accumulation of microplastic on shorelines woldwide: sources and sinks. Environ Sci Technol 45(21):9175–9179Google Scholar
  13. Canesi L, Ciacci C, Bergami E, Monopoli MP, Dawson KA, Papa S, Canonico B, Corsi I (2015) Evidence for immunomodulation and apoptotic processes induced by cationic polystyrene nanoparticles in the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus. Mar Environ Res 111:1–7Google Scholar
  14. Carpenter E, Anderson SJ, Miklas HP, Peck BB, Harvey GR (1972) Polystyrene spherules in coastal waters. Science 178(4062):749Google Scholar
  15. Cedervall T, Hansson LA, Lard M, Frohm B, Linse S (2012) Food chain transport of nanoparticles affects behaviour and fat metabolism in fish. PLoS ONE 7:e32254Google Scholar
  16. Cole M, Galloway TS (2015) Ingestion of nanoplastics and microplastics by Pacific oyster larvae. Environ Sci Technol 49:14625–14632Google Scholar
  17. Cole M, Lindeque P, Halsband C, Galloway TS (2011) Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: a review. Mar Pollut Bull 62(12):2588–2597Google Scholar
  18. Cole M, Lindeque P, Fileman E, Halsband C, Galloway TS (2015) The impact of polystyrene microplastics on feeding, function and fecundity in the marine copepod Calanushelgolandicus. Environ Sci Technol 49:1130–1137Google Scholar
  19. Colton JB, Knapp FD, Burns BR (1974) Plastic particles in surface waters of Northwestern Atlantic. Science 185(4150):491–497Google Scholar
  20. de Sá LC, Luıś LG, Guilhermino L (2015) Effects of microplastics on juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistusmicrops): confusion with prey, reduction of the predatory performance and efficiency, and possible influence of developmental conditions. Environ Pollut 196:359–362Google Scholar
  21. Deka JP, Baruah B, Singh S, Chaudhury R, Prakash A, Bhattacharyy P, Selvan MT, Kumar M (2015) Tracing phosphorous distributions in the surficial sediments of two eastern Himalayan high-altitude lakes through sequential extraction, multivariate and HYSPLIT back trajectory analyses. Environ Earth Sci 73:7617–7629Google Scholar
  22. Della Torre C, Bergami E, Salvati A, Faleri C, Cirino P, Dawson KA, Corsi I (2014) Accumulation and embryotoxicity of polystyrene nanoparticles at early stage of development of sea urchin embryos Paracentrotus lividus. Environ Sci Technol 48:12302–12311Google Scholar
  23. Elimelech M, Gregory J, Jia X (2013) Modelling of aggregation processes, In Particle deposition and aggregation: measurement, modelling and simulation. Butterworth-HeinemannGoogle Scholar
  24. Eubeler JP, Zok S, Bernhard M, Knepper TP (2009) Environmental biodegradation of synthetic polymers I. Test methodologies and procedures. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 28(9):1057–1072Google Scholar
  25. Farrell P, Nelson K (2013) Trophic level transfer of microplastic: Mytilus edulis (L.) to Carcinusmaenas (L.) Environ. Pollution 177:1–3Google Scholar
  26. GESAMP (2015) Sources, fate and effects of microplastics in the marine environment: a global assessment. Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection Reports and studies, 90Google Scholar
  27. Gewert B, Plassmann MM, MacLeod M (2015) Pathways for degradation of plastic polymers floating in the marine environment. Environ Sci-Proc Imp 17(9):1513–1521Google Scholar
  28. Gouin T, Avalos J, Brunning I, Brzuska K, de Graaf J, Kaumanns J, Koning T, Meyberg M, Rettinger K, Schlatter H, Thomas J, Van Welie R, Wolf T (2015) Use of micro-plastic beads in cosmetic products in Europe and their estimated emissions to the North Sea environment. SOFW 3:40–46Google Scholar
  29. Green DS, Boots B, Sigwart J, Jiang S, Rocha C (2016) Effects of conventional and biodegradable microplastics on a marine ecosystem engineer (Arenicola marina) and sediment nutrient cycling. Environ Pollut 208:426–434Google Scholar
  30. Gregory MR (1977) Plastic pellets on New-Zealand beaches. Mar Pollut Bull 8(4):82–84Google Scholar
  31. Greven AC, Merk T, Karag€oz F, Mohr K, Klapper M, Jovanović B, Palić D (2016) Polycarbonate and polystyrene nanoplastic particles act as stressors to the innate immune system of fathead minnow (Pimephalespromelas). Environ Toxicol Chem 35:3093–3100Google Scholar
  32. Grima S, Bellon-Maurel V, Feuilloley P, Silvestre F (2000) Aerobic biodegradation of polymers in solid-state conditions: a review of environmental and physicochemical parameter settings in laboratory simulations. J Polym Environ 8(4):183–195Google Scholar
  33. GUV.UK (2018) World leading microbeads ban comes into force. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/world-leading-microbeads-ban-comes-into-force
  34. Harrison JP, Ojeda JJ, Romero-González ME (2012) The applicability of reflectance micro- Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for the detection of synthetic microplastics in marine sediments. Sci Total Environ 416:455–463Google Scholar
  35. Horton AA, Svendsen C, Williams RJ, Spurgeon DJ, Lahive E (2017) Large microplastic particles in sediments of tributaries of the River Thames, UK–Abundance, sources and methods for effective quantification. Mar Pollut Bull 114(1):218–226Google Scholar
  36. Jambeck JR, Geyer R, Wilcox C, Siegler TR, Perryman M, Andrady A, Narayan R, Law KL (2015) Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean. Science 347(6223):768–771Google Scholar
  37. Ji Z-G (2008) Hydrodynamics and water quality: modeling rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  38. Johnson CP, Li X, Logan BE (1996) Settling velocities of fractal aggregates. Environ Sci Technol 30:1911–1918Google Scholar
  39. Karami A, Romano N, Galloway T, Hamzah H (2016) Virgin microplastics cause toxicity and modulate the impacts of phenanthrene on biomarker responses in African catfish (Clariasgariepinus). Environ Res 151:58–70Google Scholar
  40. Kashiwada S (2006) Distribution of nanoparticles in the see-through medaka (Oryziaslatipes). Environ Health Perspect 114:1697–1702Google Scholar
  41. Khatmullina L, Isachenko I (2016) Settling velocity of microplastic particles of regular shapes. Mar Pollut Bull 114(2):871–880Google Scholar
  42. Klein S, Worch E, Knepper TP (2015) Occurrence and spatial distribution of microplastics in river shore sediments of the Rhine-Main area in Germany. Environ Sci Technol 49(10):6070–6076Google Scholar
  43. Kowalski N, Reichardt AM, Waniek JJ (2016) Sinking rates of microplastics and potential implications of their alteration by physical, biological, and chemical factors. Mar Pollut Bull 109(1):310–319Google Scholar
  44. Kumar M (2016) Understanding the remobilization of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead due to ageing through sequential extraction and isotopic exchangeability. Environ Monit Assessment 188:381.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5379-z
  45. Kumar M, Snow D, Li Y, Shea P (2019) Perchlorate behavior in the context of black carbon and metal cogeneration following fireworks emission at Oak Lake, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. Environ Pollut 253:930–938Google Scholar
  46. Lambert S, Wagner M (2018) Microplastics are contaminants of emerging concern in freshwater environments: an overview. In: Freshwater microplastics. Springer, Cham, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  47. Lambert S, Sinclair CJ, Boxall ABA (2014) Occurrence, degradation and effects of polymer based materials in the environment. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 227:1–53Google Scholar
  48. Lassen C, Hansen SF, Magnusson K, Norén F, Hartmann NB, Jensen PR, Nielsen TG, Brinch A (2015) Microplastics: occurrence, effects and sources of releases to the environment in Denmark, Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen K, Environmental project no. 1793Google Scholar
  49. Lebreton LC, Van der Zwet J, Damsteeg JW, Slat B, Andrady A, Reisser J (2017) River plastic emissions to the world’s oceans. Nat Comm 8:15611Google Scholar
  50. Lee DG, Bonner JS, Garton LS et al (2000) Modeling coagulation kinetics incorporating fractal theories: a fractal rectilinear approach. Water Res 34:1987–2000Google Scholar
  51. Lee KW, Shim WJ, Kwon OY, Kang JH (2013) Size-dependent effects of micro polystyrene particles in the marine copepod Tigriopusjaponicus. Environ Sci Technol 47:11278–11283Google Scholar
  52. Lithner D, Damberg J, Dave G, Larsson A (2009) Leachates from plastic consumer products—screening for toxicity with Daphnia magna. Chemosphere 74(9):1195–1200Google Scholar
  53. Lithner D, Nordensvan I, Dave G (2012) Comparative acute toxicity of leachates from plastic products made of polypropylene, polyethylene, PVC, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, and epoxy to Daphnia magna. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19(5):1763–1772Google Scholar
  54. Löder MGJ, Gerdts G (2015) Methodology used for the detection and identification of microplastics—a critical appraisal. In: Bergmann M, Gutow L, Klages M (eds) Marine anthropogenic litter. Springer, Cham, pp 201–227Google Scholar
  55. Löder MGJ, Kuczera M, Mintenig S, Lorenz C, Gerdts G (2015) Focal plane array detector based micro-Fourier-transform infrared imaging for the analysis of microplastics in environmental samples. Environ Chem 12:563Google Scholar
  56. Lönnstedt OM, Eklov P (2016) Environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic particles influence larval fish ecology. Science 352:1213–1216Google Scholar
  57. Lu Y, Zhang Y, Deng Y, Jiang W, Zhao Y, Geng J, Ding L, Ren H (2016) Uptake and Accumulation of polystyrene microplastics in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and toxic effects in liver. Environ Sci Technol 50:4054–4060Google Scholar
  58. Mahmood K (1987) Reservoir sedimentation: impact, extent, and mitigation. Technical paperGoogle Scholar
  59. Mazurais D, Ernande B, Quazuguel P, Severe A, Huelvan C, Madec L, Mouchel O, Soudant P, Robbens J, Huvet A, Zambonino-Infante J (2015) Evaluation of the impact of polyethylene microbeads ingestion in European sea bass (Dicentrarchuslabrax) larvae. Mar Environ Res 112:78–85Google Scholar
  60. McNown JS, Malaika J (1950) Effects of particle shape on settling velocity at low Reynolds numbers. EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 31:74–82Google Scholar
  61. Mukherjee S, Patel AK, Manish Kumar (2020) Water scarcity and land degradation nexus in the era of anthropocene: some reformations to encounter the environmental challenges for advanced water management systems meeting the sustainable development. In: Manish Kumar, Snow D, Honda R (eds) Emerging issues in the water environment during anthropocene: a south east Asian perspective. Publisher Springer Nature. ISBN 978-93-81891-41-4Google Scholar
  62. Muncke J (2009) Exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds via the food chain: is packaging a relevant source? Sci Total Environ 407(16):4549–4559Google Scholar
  63. Napper IE, Thompson RC (2016) Release of synthetic microplastic plastic fibres from domestic washing machines: effects of fabric type and washing conditions. Mar Pollut Bull 112(1–2):39–45Google Scholar
  64. Nobre CR, Santana MFM, Maluf A, Cortez FS, Cesar A, Pereira CDS, Turra A (2015) Assessment of microplastic toxicity to embryonic development of the sea urchin Lytechinusvariegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Mar Pollut Bull 92(1–2):99–104Google Scholar
  65. O’Connor IA, Golsteijn L, Hendriks AJ (2016) Review of the partitioning of chemicals into different plastics: consequences for the risk assessment of marine plastic debris. Mar Pollut Bull 113(1–2):17–24Google Scholar
  66. Oehlmann J, Schulte-Oehlmann U, Kloas W, Jagnytsch O, Lutz I, Kusk KO, Wollenberger L, Santos EM, Paull GC, Van Look KJ, Tyler CR (2009) A critical analysis of the biological impacts of plasticizers on wildlife. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364(1526):2047–2062Google Scholar
  67. Ogonowski M, Schür C, Jarsén Å, Gorokhova E (2016) The effects of natural and anthropogenic microparticles on individual fitness in Daphnia magna. PLoS ONE 11:e0155063Google Scholar
  68. Patel AK, Das N, Goswami R, Manish Kumar (2019a) Arsenic mobility and potential co-leaching of fluoride from the sediments of three tributaries of the Upper Brahmaputra floodplain, Lakhimpur, Assam, India. J Geochem Exploration 203:45–58Google Scholar
  69. Patel AK, Das N, Manish Kumar (2019b) Multilayer arsenic mobilization and multimetal co-enrichment in the alluvium (Brahmaputra) plains of India: a tale of redox domination along the depth. Chemosphere 224:140–150Google Scholar
  70. Paul-Pont I, Lacroix C, GonzálezFernández C, Hégaret H, Lambert C, Le Goïc N, Frére L, Cassone AL, Sussarellu R, Fabioux C, Guyomarch J, Albentosa M, Huvet A, Soudant P (2016). Exposure of marine mussels Mytilusspp. to polystyrene microplastics: toxicity and influence on fluoranthene bioaccumulation. Environ Pollut 216:724–737Google Scholar
  71. Peda C, Caccamo L, Fossi MC, Gai F, Andaloro F, Genovese L, Perdichizzi A, Romeo T, Maricchiolo G (2016) Intestinal alterations in European sea bass Dicentrarchuslabrax (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to microplastics: preliminary results. Environ Pollut 212:251–256Google Scholar
  72. PlasticsEurope (2019) Plastics-the facts 2019: an analysis of European plastics production, demand and waste data. http://www.plasticseurope.org
  73. Praetorius A, Scheringer M, Hungerbühler K (2012) Development of environmental fate models for engineered nanoparticles—a case study of TiO2 nanoparticles in the Rhine river. Environ Sci Technol 46:6705–6713Google Scholar
  74. Qi Y, Yang X, Pelaez AM, Lwanga EH, Beriot N, Gertsen H, Garbeva P, Geissen V (2018) Macro-and micro-plastics in soil-plant system: Effects of plastic mulch film residues on wheat (Triticumaestivum) growth. Sci Total Environ 645:1048–1056Google Scholar
  75. Quik JTK, Velzeboer I, Wouterse M et al (2014) Heteroaggregation and sedimentation rates for nanomaterials in natural waters. Water Res 48:269–279Google Scholar
  76. Raghavan D, Torma AE (1992) DSC and FTIR characterization of biodegradation of polyethylene. Polym Engine Sci 32(6):438–442Google Scholar
  77. Reddy MM, Deighton M, Gupta RK, Bhattacharya SN, Parthasarathy R (2009) Biodegradation of oxo-biodegradable polyethylene. J Appl Polym Sci 111(3):1426–1432Google Scholar
  78. Rehse S, Kloas W, Zarfl C (2016) Short-term exposure with high concentrations of pristine microplastic particles leads to immobilisation of Daphnia magna. Chemosphere 153:91–99Google Scholar
  79. Rist SE, Hartmann NB (2017) Aquatic ecotoxicity of microplastics and nanoplastics—lessons learned from engineered nanomaterials. In: Wagner M, Lambert S (eds) Freshwater microplastics: emerging environmental contaminants? Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  80. Rist S, Hartmann NB (2018) Aquatic ecotoxicity of microplastics and nanoplastics: lessons learned from engineered nanomaterials. In: Wagner M, Lambert S, Lambert MW (eds) Freshwater microplastics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 25–49Google Scholar
  81. Rist SE, Assidqi K, Zamani NP, Appel D, Perschke M, Huhn M, Lenz M (2016) Suspended micro-sized PVC particles impair the performance and decrease survival in the Asian green mussel Pernaviridis. Mar Pollut Bull 111:213–220Google Scholar
  82. Rochman CM (2015) The complex mixture, fate and toxicity of chemicals associated with plastic debris in the marine environment. In: Bergmann M, Gutow L, Klages M (eds) Marine anthropogenic litter. Springer, Cham, pp 117–140Google Scholar
  83. Rosenkranz P, Chaudhry Q, Stone V, Fernandes TF (2009) A comparison of nanoparticle and fine particle uptake by Daphnia magna. Environ Toxicol Chem 28(10):2142–2149Google Scholar
  84. Sarkar DJ, Barman M, Bera T, De M, Chatterjee D (2018) Agriculture: polymers in crop production mulch and fertilizer. In: Mishra M (ed) Encyclopedia of polymer applications. CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  85. Sarkar DJ, Sarkar SD, Das BK, Manna RK, Behera BK, Samanta S (2019) Spatial distribution of meso and microplastics in the sediments of river Ganga at eastern India. Sci Total Environ 694:133712Google Scholar
  86. Scarascia-Mugnozza G, Schettini E, Vox G, Malinconico M, Immirzi B, Pagliara S (2006) Mechanical properties decay and morphological behaviour of biodegradable films for agricultural mulching in real scale experiment. Polym Degrad Stabil 91(11):2801–2808Google Scholar
  87. Singh A, Patel AK, Deka JP, Das A, Kumar A, Manish Kumar (2019) Prediction of Arsenic vulnerable zones in groundwater environment of rapidly urbanizing setup, Guwahati, India. Geochemistry 125590.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemer.2019.125590
  88. Singh A, Patel AK, Manish Kumar (2020) Mitigating the risk of Arsenic and Fluoride contamination of groundwater through a Multi-Model framework of statistical assessment and natural remediation techniques. In: Manish Kumar, Snow D, Honda R (eds) Emerging issues in the water environment during anthropocene: a south east Asian perspective. Publisher Springer Nature. ISBN 978-93-81891-41-4Google Scholar
  89. Song YK, Hong SH, Jang M, Han GM, Rani M, Lee J, Shim WJ (2015) A comparison of microscopic and spectroscopic identification methods for analysis of microplastics in environmental samples. Mar Pollut Bull 93:202–209Google Scholar
  90. Steinmetz Z, Wollmann C, Schaefer M, Buchmann C, David J, Tröger J, Muñoz K, Froer O, Schaumann GE (2016) Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation? Sci Total Environ 550:690–705Google Scholar
  91. Sussarellu R, Suquet M, Thomas Y, Lambert C, Fabioux C, Pernet MEJ, Le Goïc N, Quillien V, Mingant C, Epelboin Y, Corporeau C, Guyomarch J, Robbens J, Paul-Pont I, Soudant P, Huvet A (2016) Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics. Proc Natl Acad Sci 113:2430–2435Google Scholar
  92. Tagg AS, Sapp M, Harrison JP, Ojeda JJ (2015) Identification and quantification of microplastics in wastewater using focal plane array-based reflectance micro-FT-IR imaging. Anal Chem 87:6032–6040Google Scholar
  93. Tanaka K, Takada H (2016) Microplastic fragments and microbeads in digestive tracts of planktivorous fish from urban coastal waters. Sci Rep 6:34351Google Scholar
  94. Tata Strategic (2014) Potential of plastics industry in Northern India with special focus on plasticulture and food processing-2014. A report on plastics industry. Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry. New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  95. Teuten EL, Rowland SJ, Galloway TS, Thompson RC (2007) Potential for plastics to transport hydrophobic contaminants. Environ Sci Technol 41:7759–7764Google Scholar
  96. UNEP (2018) Single-use plastics: a roadmap for sustainability. https://wedocs.unep.org/handle/20.500.11822/25496
  97. van Wezel A, Caris I, Kools SA (2016) Release of primary microplastics from consumer products to wastewater in The Netherlands. Environ Toxicol Chem 35(7):1627–1631Google Scholar
  98. Venkatachalam S, Nayak SG, Labde JV, Gharal PR, Rao K, Kelkar AK (2012) In: Saleh HED (ed) Polyester, InTechGoogle Scholar
  99. von Moos N, Burkhardt-Holm P, K€ohler A (2012) Uptake and effects of microplastics on cells and tissue of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L. after an experimental exposure. Environ Sci Technol 46:11327–11335Google Scholar
  100. Wagner M, Scherer C, Alvarez-Mũnoz D, Brennholt N, Bourrain X, Buchinger S, Fries E, Grosbois C, Klasmeier J, Marti T, Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Urbatzka R, Vethaak A, Winther-Neilson M, Reifferscheid G (2014) Microplastics in freshwater ecosystems: what we know and what we need to know. Environ Sci Eu 26(1):12Google Scholar
  101. Wallis S (2007) The numerical solution of the advection-dispersion equation: a review of some basic principles. Acta Geophys 55:85–94Google Scholar
  102. Wang J, Peng J, Tan Z, Gao Y, Zhan Z, Chen Q, Cai L (2017) Microplastics in the surface sediments from the Beijiang River littoral zone: composition, abundance, surface textures and interaction with heavy metals. Chemosphere 171:248–258Google Scholar
  103. Waters CN, Zalasiewicz J, Summerhayes C, Barnosky AD, Poirier C, Galuszka A, Cearreta A, Edgeworth M, Ellis EC, Ellis M, Jeandel C, Leinfelder R, McNeill JR, Richter D, Steffen W, Syvitski J, Vidas D, Wagreich M, Williams M, Zhisheng A, Grinevald J, Odada E, Oreskes N, Wolfe AP (2016) The anthropocene is functionally and stratigraphically distinct from the Holocene. Science 351(6269):aad2622Google Scholar
  104. Watts AJR, Urbina MA, Goodhead R, Moger J, Lewis C, Galloway TS (2016) Effect of microplastic on the gills of the shore crab Carcinusmaenas. Environ Sci Technol 50:5364–5369Google Scholar
  105. Wegner A, Besseling E, Foekema EM, Kamermans P, Koelmans AA (2012) Effects of nanopolystyrene on the feeding behavior of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) Environ. Toxicol Chem 31:2490–2497Google Scholar
  106. Weinstein JE, Crocker BK, Gray AD (2016) Frommacroplastic to microplastic: degradation of high-density polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene in a salt marsh habitat. Environ Toxicol Chem 35(7):1632–1640Google Scholar
  107. Wright SL, Rowe D, Thompson RC, Galloway TS (2013a) Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms. Curr Biol 23:R1031–R1033Google Scholar
  108. Wright SL, Thompson RC, Galloway TS (2013b) The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: a review. Environ Pollut 178:483–492Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dhruba Jyoti Sarkar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Soma Das Sarkar
    • 1
  • Santanu Mukherjee
    • 2
  • Basanta Kumar Das
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-Central Inland Fisheries Research InstituteKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Discipline of Earth SciencesIndian Institute of Technology GandhinagarGandhinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations