Advertisement

A New Chinese National Identity: The Role of Nationalism in Chinese Foreign Policy

  • Niall DugganEmail author
Chapter
  • 37 Downloads

Abstract

Under the leadership of Xi Jinping, the People’s Republic of China has moved to a more proactive foreign policy. While the Chinese economy’s increased importance within global production has given China a greater influence on the world stage, a more proactive Chinese foreign policy has its roots in the rise of a new Chinese nationalism. This chapter analyses two case studies of the effects of China’s new nationalism on Chinese foreign policy: Sino-Japanese relations during the Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Islands disputes of 2013–2019 (reactive case), and Sino-Malian relations during Chinese peacekeeping missions in 2013 (proactive case). It argues that in policy formation, domestic Chinese nationalism is a factor that warrants greater consideration for Chinese foreign policymakers than it had elicited prior to Xi Jinping’s administration.

Keywords

China Nationalism Foreign policy International affairs 

Bibliography

  1. Aidoo, Richard, and Steve Hess. “Beyond the Rhetoric: Noninterference in China’s African Policy.” African and Asian Studies 9, no. 3 (2010): 356–383.Google Scholar
  2. Bloom, William. Personal Identity, National Identity and International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  3. Brittingham, Michael Alan. “The ‘Role’ of Nationalism in Chinese Foreign Policy: A Reactive Model of Nationalism & Conflict.” Journal of Chinese Political Science 12, no. 2 (2007): 147–166.Google Scholar
  4. Carlson, Allen. “A Flawed Perspective: The Limitations Inherent Within the Study of Chinese Nationalism.” Nations and Nationalism 15, no. 1 (2009): 20–35.Google Scholar
  5. Chubb, Andrew. “Assessing Public Opinion’s Influence on Foreign Policy: The Case of China’s Assertive Maritime Behaviour.” Asian Security 15, no. 2 (2019): 159–179.Google Scholar
  6. Connolly, Chris, and Jörn-Carsten Gottwald. “The Long Quest for an International Order with Chinese Characteristics: A Cultural Perspective on Modern China’s Foreign Policies.” Pacific Focus XXVIII, no. 2 (2013): 269–293.Google Scholar
  7. Downs, Erica Strecker, and Phillip C. Saunders. “Legitimacy and the Limits of Nationalism: China and the Diaoyu Islands.” International Security 23, no. 3 (1998): 114–146.Google Scholar
  8. Duggan, Niall. “China’s Changing Role in Its All-Weather Friendship with Africa.” In China’s International Roles Challenging or Supporting International Order?, edited by Sebastian Harnisch, Sebastian Bersick, and Jörn-Carsten Gottwald, 207–225. Abingdon: Routledge, 2015.Google Scholar
  9. Fewsmith, Joseph, and Stanley Rosen. “The Domestic Context of Chinese Foreign Policy: Does ‘Public Opinion’ Matter?” In The Making of Chinese Foreign and Security Policy in the Era of Reform, 1978–2000, edited by David Lampton, 151–190. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001.Google Scholar
  10. Gottwald, Jörn-Carsten, and Niall Duggan. “Hesitant Adaptation: China’s New Role in Global Policies.” In Role Theory in International Relations, edited by Sebastian Harnisch, Cornelia Frank, and Hanns W. Maull, 234–251. Abingdon: Routledge, 2011.Google Scholar
  11. Gries, Peter Hays, Derek Steiger, and Tao Wang. “Popular Nationalism and China’s Japan Policy: The Diaoyu Islands Protests, 2012–2013.” Journal of Contemporary China 25, no. 98 (2016): 264–276.Google Scholar
  12. Harnisch, Sebastian. “China’s Historical Self and Its International Role.” In China’s International Roles Challenging or Supporting International Order?, edited by Sebastian Harnisch, Sebastian Bersick, and Jörn-Carsten Gottwald, 38–58. Abingdon: Routledge, 2015.Google Scholar
  13. He, Yinan. “History, Chinese Nationalism and the Emerging Sino-Japanese Conflict.” Journal of Contemporary China 16, no. 50 (2007): 1–24.Google Scholar
  14. Johnston, Alastair Iain. “Is Chinese Nationalism Rising? Evidence from Beijing.” International Security 41, no. 3 (2017): 7–43.Google Scholar
  15. Kinnvall, Catarina. “Globalization and Religious Nationalism: Self, Identity, and the Search for Ontological Security.” Political Psychology 25, no. 5 (2004): 741–767.Google Scholar
  16. Krolikowski, Alanna. “State Personhood in Ontological Security Theories of International Relations and Chinese Nationalism: A Sceptical View.” Chinese Journal of International Politics 2, no. 1 (2008): 109–133.Google Scholar
  17. Liao, Nien-chung Chang. “China’s New Foreign Policy Under Xi Jinping.” Asian Security 12, no. 2 (2016): 82–91.Google Scholar
  18. Mitzen, Jennifer. “Anchoring Europe’s Civilizing Identity: Habits, Capabilities and Ontological Security.” Journal of European Public Policy 13, no. 2 (2006): 270–85.Google Scholar
  19. Modongal, Shameer. “Development of Nationalism in China.” Cogent Social Sciences 2, no. 1 (2016).Google Scholar
  20. Poh, Angela, and Mingjiang Li. “A China in Transition: The Rhetoric and Substance of Chinese Foreign Policy Under Xi Jinping.” Asian Security 13, no. 2 (2017): 84–97.Google Scholar
  21. Reilly, James. “A Wave to Worry About? Public Opinion, Foreign Policy and China’s Anti-Japan Protests.” Journal of Contemporary China 23, no. 86 (2014): 197–215.Google Scholar
  22. Sato, Koichi. “The Senkaku Islands Dispute: Four Reasons of the Chinese Offensive—A Japanese View.” Journal of Contemporary East Asia Studies 8, no. 1 (2019): 50–82.Google Scholar
  23. Schneider, Julia C. “Early Chinese Nationalism: The Origins Under Manchu Rule.” In Interpreting China as a Regional and Global Power: Nationalism and Historical Consciousness in World Politics, edited by Bart Dessein, 7–29. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.Google Scholar
  24. Steele, Brent J. Ontological Security in International Relations. Abingdon: Routledge, 2008.Google Scholar
  25. Stryker, Sheldon, and Anne Statham. “Symbolic Interaction and Role Theory.” In Handbook of Social Psychology, edited by Gardner Lindzey and Elliot Aronson, 311–378. New York: Random House, 1985.Google Scholar
  26. Taylor, Ian. China and Africa: Engagement and Compromise. Abingdon: Routledge, 2006.Google Scholar
  27. Thies, Cameron. “Role Theory and Foreign Policy.” In The International Studies Encyclopaedia, edited by Robert A. Denemark, 6335–6356. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.Google Scholar
  28. Thies, Cameron. The United States, Israel and the Search for International Order. London: Routledge, 2013.Google Scholar
  29. Wang, Zheng. “National Humiliation, History Education, and the Politics of Historical Memory: Patriotic Education Campaign in China.” International Studies Quarterly 52, no. 4 (2008): 783–806.Google Scholar
  30. Weiss, Jessica Chen. “How Hawkish Is the Chinese Public? Another Look at ‘Rising Nationalism’ and Chinese Foreign Policy.” Journal of Contemporary China 28, no. 119 (2019): 679–695.Google Scholar
  31. Wing, Susanna D. “French Intervention in Mali: Strategic Alliances, Long-Term Regional Presence?” Small Wars & Insurgencies 27, no. 1 (2016): 59–80.Google Scholar
  32. Wu, Xu. Chinese Cyber Nationalism: Evolution, Characteristics, and Implications. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007.Google Scholar
  33. Xiaolin, Duan. “Unanswered Questions: Why We May Be Wrong About Chinese Nationalism and Its Foreign Policy Implications.” Journal of Contemporary China 26, no. 108 (2017): 886–900.Google Scholar
  34. Ying, Jiang. Cyber-Nationalism in China: Challenging Western Media Portrayals of Internet Censorship in China. Adelaide: University of Adelaide Press, 2012.Google Scholar
  35. Zarakol, Ayse. “Ontological Security and State Denial of Historical Crimes: Turkey and Japan.” International Relations 24, no. 3 (2010): 3–23.Google Scholar
  36. Zhang, Jian. “China’s New Foreign Policy Under Xi Jinping: Towards ‘Peaceful Rise 2.0’?” Global Change, Peace & Security 27, no. 1 (2015): 5–19.Google Scholar
  37. Zhao, Shuisheng. “Chinese Nationalism and Its International Orientations.” Political Science Quarterly 115, no. 1 (2000): 1–33.Google Scholar
  38. Zhao, Suisheng. “A State-Led Nationalism: The Patriotic Education Campaign in Post-Tiananmen China.” Communist and Post-communist Studies 31, no. 3 (1998): 287–302.Google Scholar
  39. Zhao, Suisheng. “China’s Pragmatic Nationalism: Is it Manageable?” The Washington Quarterly 29, no. 1 (2005): 131–144.Google Scholar
  40. Zhimin, Chen. “Nationalism, Internationalism and Chinese Foreign Policy.” Journal of Contemporary China 14, no. 42 (2005): 35–53.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Government and PoliticsUniversity College CorkCorkIreland

Personalised recommendations