Blockchain-Based Mechanisms to Address IoT Security Issues: A Review

  • Ochchhav PatelEmail author
  • Hiren Patel
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies book series (LNDECT, volume 52)


Internet of things (IoT) is seen as combinations of various communication technologies and embedded equipment such as sensors, micro-controllers, radio-frequency identification, wireless devices, etc., which work as a single unit to achieve a specific task in a smart way, i.e., with less human intervention, and decisions are made automatically. IoT is used in many sectors such as smart home automation, smart grids, smart cities, vehicular networks, etc. Due to easy accessibility and reachability to such devices or networks, there are severe security and privacy issues in IoT. User authentication, access control mechanism, confidentiality and data correctness are a few of the major concerns among them. Though it looks like conventional security concerns, but due to (i) the dynamic nature of IoT, (ii) the resource-scarce nature of the devices and (iii) different standards and communication stacks involved, traditional network security countermeasures may not be applied directly to IoT. In recent years, usage of blockchain technology to address various security issues, specifically data correctness, has opened up a facet for IoT to explore the option of using blockchain in IoT. Researchers have started investigating the same. Primitively, blockchain is a non-editable, decentralized and cryptographically secured ledger that is tolerant against byzantine failure. This nature of blockchain makes it an attractive alternative to address security issues such as data integrity, entity authentication, etc. Also, in an IoT environment, where devices are spread across a vast geographical area, it requires a decentralized validation mechanism that a blockchain provides. In this paper, we intend to make an exhaustive survey of various researches being carried out to secure IoT networks using blockchain technology. We also aim to provide a summarized view for various prospective research directions in IoT which can be addressed by blockchain technology.


Blockchain Internet of things Security Privacy Confidentiality 


  1. 1.
    Atzori L, Iera A, Morabito G (2010) The internet of things: a survey. Comput Netw 54(15):2787–2805Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hammi MT, Hammi B, Bellot P, Serhrouchni A Bubbles of trust: a decentralized blockchain-based authentication system for IoT. Comput Secur 78:126–142Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yuan R, Shumin L, Baogang Y (2007) Value chain oriented RFID system framework and enterprise application. Beijing: Sci (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    METRO Group Future Store Initiative.
  5. 5.
    Vilamovska AM, Hattziandreu E, Schindler R, Van Oranje C, De Vries H, Krapelse J (2009) RFID application in healthcare—scoping and identifying areas for RFID deployment in healthcare delivery, RAND EurGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Miorandi D, Sicari S, De Pellegrini F, Chlamtac I (2012) Internet of things: vision, applications and research challenges. Ad Hoc netw 10(7):1497–1516Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    SENSEI FP7 Project, Scenario Portfolio, User and Context Requirements, Deliverable.
  8. 8.
    Shantha JR (2016) A neoteric authentication scheme for Iot healthcare system.
  9. 9.
    BUTLER Project.
  10. 10.
    Shin H, Lee HK, Cha HY, Heo SW, Kim H (2019) IoT security issues and light weight block cipher. In: International conference on artificial intelligence in information and communication (ICAIIC), IEEE, pp 381–384Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nabil D, Tandjaoui D, Romdhani I, Medjek F (2018) Trust management in internet of things.
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
    Guo, Y, Liang, C (2016) Blockchain application and outlook in the banking industry. Finan Innov 2(1):24Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yaga, D, Mell, P, Roby, N, Scarfone, K (2018) Blockchain technology overview (No. NIST Internal or Interagency Report (NISTIR) 8202 (Draft)), National Institute of Standards and TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rifi, N, Rachkidi, E, Agoulmine, N, Taher, NC (2017) Towards using blockchain technology for IoT data access protection. In: 2017 IEEE 17th international conference on ubiquitous wireless broadband (ICUWB), IEEE, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Javaid, U, Aman, MN, Sikdar B (2018) BlockPro.: blockchain based data provenance and integrity for secure IoT environments. In: Proceedings of the 1st workshop on blockchain-enabled networked sensor systems, ACM, pp 13–18Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mining in Bitcoin. Available at:
  18. 18.
    Makhdoom, I, Abolhasan, M, Abbas H, Ni W (2019) Blockchain’s adoption in IoT: the challenges, and a way forward. J Netw Comput Appl 125:251–279Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dorri A, Kanhere SS, Jurdak R, Gauravaram P (2017) Blockchain for IoT security and privacy: the case study of a smart home. In: 2017 IEEE international conference on pervasive computing and communications workshops, PerCom workshops, IEEE, pp 618–623Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zheng Z, Xie S, Dai HN, Wang H (2016) Blockchain challenges and opportunities: a survey. Work PapGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
    Ming Z, Yang S, Li Q, Wang D, Xu M, Xu K Blockcloud: empowering IoT through a service-centric blockchain. Blockcloud Technical White PaperGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ali MS, Dolui K, Antonelli F (2017) IoT data privacy via blockchains and IPFS. In: Proceedings of the seventh international conference on the internet of things, ACM, pp 14Google Scholar
  24. 24.
  25. 25.
    Qu C, Tao M, Zhang J, Hong X, Yuan R (2018) Blockchain based credibility verification method for IoT entities. Secur Commun NetwGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vučinić M, Tourancheau B, Rousseau F, Duda A, Damon L, Guizzetti R (2015) OSCAR: object security architecture for the internet of things. Ad Hoc Netw 32:3–16Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Seitz L, Selander G, Wahlstroem E, Erdtman S, Tschofenig H (2017) Authentication and authorization for constrained environments (ACE). Int Eng Task Force Int Draft Draft Ietf Aceoauth Authz 07 work Prog. Available at:
  28. 28.
    Alphand O, Amoretti M, Claeys T, Dall’Asta S, Duda A, Ferrari G, Zanichelli F (2017) IoT Chain: a blockchain security architecture for the internet of things. In: IEEE wireless communications and networking conference (WCNC), IEEE, pp 1–6Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LDRP Institute of Technology and Research, Kadi Sarva VishwavidyalayaGandhinagarIndia
  2. 2.Vidush Somany Institute of Technology and Research, Kadi Sarva VishwavidyalayaGandhinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations