Microbial Cell Factories in Nanotechnology
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The nanotechnology is the fast-growing field that offers a huge application in various disciplines of science and technology. The nanoscale materials can be synthesized by physical, chemical, physicochemical, or biological methods. All the synthesis processes except biological process have some environmental and operational constraints. The biological synthesis process or green synthesis of these nanomaterials is an eco-friendly and cost-effective approach which utilizes bacteria, fungi, and plant sources. Biological systems are a good producer of nanoparticles such as magnetotactic bacteria that are capable of producing magnetite (Fe3O4), while diatoms are capable of producing siliceous materials. Magnetotactic bacteria produce magnetosomes which are greatly used for the immobilization of enzymes, antibodies, DNA, and RNA. Metal and microbial interactions are greatly involved in the processes like biomineralization, bioremediation, bioleaching, and microbial corrosion. Pseudomonas stutzeri AG259 is a metal-accumulating bacterium that has the capability to produce silver nanoparticles; fungi like Candida glabrata and Schizosaccharomyces pombe have the potential to produce cadmium sulfide particles. Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been well studied for its potential to detoxify cadmium from the environment by active intracellular uptake of cadmium and its bioconversion to small iso-peptides. In a summarized way, we can say microbes are the living factories for the generation of advanced materials.
KeywordsNanoparticle Cell factory Nanosynthesis Bacteria Fungi Actinomycetes
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