Integrated Management of Phytopathogenic Nematodes Infesting Mushroom

  • Nishi Keshari
  • K. V. V. S. K. Kranti


Mushroom cultivation, being one of the fastest-growing, young, progressive industries worldwide, is attracting small-scale industrialists, rich farmers along with poor and marginal farmers and rural women. It does not need a defined land for its production. So, anyone can grow it. It is very nutritious, contains protein, minerals, fibres and have sufficient moisture. It also contains some medicinal properties. The common edible mushrooms that are grown commercially are white button mushroom, oyster mushroom, milky mushroom and paddy straw mushroom. Mushroom cultivation is very much prone to biotic and abiotic stresses. Amongst the biotic stresses, nematodes are the major pests in mushroom production. Myceliophagous nematodes (like Aphelenchoides spp., Aphelenchus spp. and Ditylenchus myceliophagus) and saprophagous nematodes both have great role in reducing the yield of mushroom sporophores. Myceliophagous nematodes feed the mycelium of the mushroom during spawn run. Hence, the fruiting bodies cannot develop properly. In severe infestation, the loss may go up to 100%. The saprophagous nematodes indirectly harm the production of mushroom by secreting some enzymes and toxins. The mushrooms are harvested and consumed fresh. So, application of nematicides is not advisable because of residual problems. Thus, management through integrated approach is the best method for getting better yield and less nematode population. Maintenance of hygienic conditions during the crop duration, i.e. from compost preparation to harvesting, is the most fruitful solution to avoid the nematode infestation in the crop. Application of heat for the sterilization of compost and implements also helps in reducing the contamination. Botanicals like neem seed kernel water extract (NSKWE), leaf incorporation of neem, pongamia, karanj, castor and eucalyptus in compost are useful in decreasing the nematode population. The predatory nematodes like Seinura spp. and Fictor spp., which are commonly found in compost, are very potential biocontrol agents and can be successfully used for the management of myceliophagous nematodes and saprophagous nematodes. The major source of contamination of myceliophagous and saprophagous nematodes are through the unpasteurized or partially pasteurized compost. Since most of the mushroom growers are poor farmers who cannot afford a pasteurization chamber, they suffer the loss in yield and do not get a good return for their crop. Thus, a common pasteurization chamber facility should be provided by the Government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The researches on new botanicals and predatory nematodes and predatory fungi may fetch high return to the mushroom growers by managing the nematode population to a low level.


Mushroom Aphelenchoides spp. Aphelenchus spp. Ditylenchus myceliophagus Management 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nishi Keshari
    • 1
  • K. V. V. S. K. Kranti
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of NematologyFaculty of Agriculture, RPCAUSamastipurIndia
  2. 2.AICRP (Nematodes on Agriculture)LBS Building, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

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