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Hypertensive Fundus Changes

  • Jacqueline Chua
  • Carol Yim-Lui Cheung
  • Leopold Schmetterer
  • Tien Yin WongEmail author
Chapter
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Part of the Retina Atlas book series (RA)

Abstract

High blood pressure (hypertension) is a global public health issue and may lead to multiple adverse effects to the eye such as retinopathy, optic neuropathy, and choroidopathy. Ocular vascular damage related to hypertension often goes underdiagnosed because it causes few or no symptoms until changes are advanced. Further, evaluation of the retinal vasculature can give an insight into hypertension status and its related damage in the end organs (brain, heart, and kidney). Ophthalmologists or optometrists need to recognize the ocular effects of blood pressure to help identify individuals potentially at risk of developing hypertensive-related eye diseases in these otherwise-asymptomatic patients and monitor its end organ effects in existing patients with hypertension.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacqueline Chua
    • 1
  • Carol Yim-Lui Cheung
    • 2
  • Leopold Schmetterer
    • 1
  • Tien Yin Wong
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye CentreSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual SciencesThe Chinese University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  3. 3.Singapore National Eye CentreSingaporeSingapore

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