Load Frequency Control of an Interconnected Multi-source Power System Using Quasi-oppositional Harmony Search Algorithm

  • Abhishek SaxenaEmail author
  • Ravi Shankar
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1154)


An effort has been revealed in this paper to develop a novel quasi-oppositional harmony search (QOHS) algorithm-based PID controller for frequency stability in a two-area power system including multiple sources. Both regions with multi-source scheme comprised of a reheat thermal unit and a hydro unit. To make the system effective, physical constraints such as time lag, governor dead band (GDB), boiler dynamics (BD), and generation rate constraints (GRC) are taken into account for thermal and hydro units in frequency stability analysis. For improvement in the ever-changing response of the two-area power system network, a promising attempt has been implied to present an effective and practical approach. With a perspective to minimize the frequency deviation during load perturbation, a peculiar controller is designed. The prominent features of the work are designing a model, simulation, and the optimization employing QOHS algorithm. It is observed that, in the event of load alteration, the nominative frequency regains promptly and productively in contrast with the conventional perspective. The simulation results with applied control technique manifest that the designed two-area power system replica is feasible and the evaluated QOHS optimization technique may be efficacious.


Load frequency control Frequency deviation Interconnected power system 



Area control error


Frequency bias setting (p.u.MW/Hz)


Damping coefficient (p.u.MW/Hz)


Nominative frequency (Hz)


Equivalent inertia constant (sec)


Subscript, denotes ith area


Reheat plant gain


Rated capacity of the region (MW)


Participation factors of thermal and hydro units


Speed adjustment setting for thermal and hydro plants (Hz/p.u.MW)


Synchronizing coefficient


Time during simulation (sec)

KP,Ki& Kd

PID controller gain


Hydro turbine speed governor time constant (sec)


Reheat time constant (sec)


Transient fall time constant of hydro turbine governor (sec)


Restart time of hydro turbine speed governor (sec)


Governor time constant of thermal turbine (sec)


Thermal turbine time constant (sec)


Starting instant of water in penstock (s)


Alteration in frequency (Hz)


Alteration in tie-line power (p.u.MW)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of Technology PatnaPatnaIndia

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