Cryopreservation of Marine Fish Sperm

  • Tian YongshengEmail author
  • Zhang Jingjing
  • Li Zhentong
  • Li Ziqi
  • Wang Linna


This paper reviews the progresses made in sperm cryopreservation of marine fish, including 40 species belonging to the genera Gadiformes, Salmoniformes, Perciformes, Pleuronectiformes, and Epinephelus. The factors that affect the efficiency of sperm cryopreservation mainly include formula of sperm diluent, type of antifreeze, and cryopreservation method. There are differences in the optimal formula of sperm diluent among species, various fish sperm diluents are prepared by the researchers using physiological salt, glucose, sucrose, and fetal bovine serum. The commonly used sperm diluents include Hanks, Ringer’s, MPRS, Ts-2, ELS-3, and MFs-3, and the data from past studies suggest that the sperm diluent plays a primary role in the survival of frozen sperm. Cryoprotectants can protect sperm from the freezing damage during the freezing process; dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 1,2-propylene glycol (PG) are the most commonly used cryoprotectants, they show the best effect at 8–15% concentration to cryopreserve sperm. The sperm cryopreservation methods include programmed cooling and the vitrification method. The research on sperm cryopreservation technology has effectively solved the industrial problems of reproductive isolation caused by the unsynchronized maturation of male and female gonads and geographical distribution in fish. Many countries, such as the United States, Canada, and China, have established various fish sperm cryobank. The cryopreserved sperm have been applied in gynogenesis induction in flatfish, hybrids breeding in grouper, and mass breeding of fish fry.


Fish Marine Spermatozoa DMSO Cryobank 



Authors acknowledge the following projects: Key Research and Development Plan of Shandong (2019GHY112063), Superior Seed Project of Shandong (2019LZGC020), and Central Public-interest Scientific Institution Basal Research Fund, YSFRI, CAFS (NO. 20603022019002, 20603022017013).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tian Yongsheng
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Zhang Jingjing
    • 1
    • 3
  • Li Zhentong
    • 1
    • 3
  • Li Ziqi
    • 1
    • 3
  • Wang Linna
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Yellow Sea Fisheries Research InstituteChinese Academy of Fishery SciencesQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production ProcessesQingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina
  3. 3.College of Fisheries and Life ScienceShanghai Ocean UniversityShanghaiChina

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