Empirical Relations for Natural or Free Convection

  • Rajendra KarwaEmail author


Flow structure and development of boundary layer for horizontal plates and cylinders, sphere, parallel plate channels and enclosed spaces have been discussed. The technique of dimensional analysis has been applied to develop functional relationship for natural or free convection heat transfer in terms of dimensionless numbers. Experimental schemes for determining heat transfer coefficient have been presented. Heat transfer coefficient correlations for vertical and flat plates, parallel plate open ended channels and enclosed spaces have been given in terms of dimensionless numbers. In Sect. 9.8, problem of combined free and forced convection has been discussed.


Buoyancy force Flow structure Dimensional analysis Grashof number Rayleigh number Empirical relations Parallel plate channels Enclosed spaces Bernard cells Mixed convection Richardson number 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jodhpur Institute of Engineering and TechnologyJodhpurIndia

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