Empirical Relations for Forced Convection Heat Transfer

  • Rajendra KarwaEmail author


Analytical solutions of some simple convection heat transfer problems, especially the convection with laminar flow, have been presented in Chap.  7. There are a large number of convection problems, especially the convection with turbulent flow, for which the analytical solutions have not met the success. Hence, the technique of dimensional analysis has been applied to develop functional relations in terms of dimensionless numbers. Empirical relations of heat transfer and friction factor have been presented in terms of these dimensionless numbers for flat plates, tubes, annuli, rectangular and parallel plate ducts, submerged bodies and tube banks for different boundary conditions. Nusselt number correlations for fully developed turbulent flow of liquid metals have been given in Sect. 8.11. In the end, effect of wall roughness on friction factor and heat transfer coefficient has been discussed and some correlations have been presented along with the Moody diagram.


Dimensional analysis Empirical relations Friction factor and heat transfer coefficient correlations Annuli Rectangular and parallel plate ducts Submerged bodies Tube banks Heat transfer in liquid metals Wall roughness Moody diagram 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jodhpur Institute of Engineering and TechnologyJodhpurIndia

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