Advertisement

Dimensions of Constitutional Democracy

  • Anupama RoyEmail author
  • Michael Becker
Chapter
  • 14 Downloads

Abstract

Constitutional democracies have distinctive antecedents and contemporary forms. The history of constitutional democracies is informed by past and continuing histories of the struggle over democratisation of power. These struggles have shaped constitutional moments and have produced constitutional orders of juridical norms and democratic practices. The durability of constitutional democracy depends on the spread of constitutional morality as a precondition for a democratic society and polity. It requires that  both the government and citizens agree to live by constitutional values which embody norms of pluralism and freedom, basic rights, and respect for difference. Yet the relationship between the constitutional order and democracy is a fraught one. It is important to study constituent moments as holding out the promise of transformation against the legacies of past wrongs. The conflict between the promise of democracy and the actual unfolding of ‘normal’ politics produces constituent power, restoring faith in constitutionalism as an affirmation of sovereign power of the people.

Keywords

Popular sovereignty Constitutional order Democratic politics Constitutional moment Transformative constitutionalism Constitutional identity Constitutional democracy 

References

  1. Ambedkar, B. R. (1949, November 25). Speech in constituent assembly. Constituent assembly debates (Vol. X–XII, Book no. 5). New Delhi: Lok Sabha Secretariat.Google Scholar
  2. Austin, G. (1966). The Indian constitution: Cornerstone of a nation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  3. Austin, G. (1999). India’s living constitution. Delhi: OUP.Google Scholar
  4. Austin, G. (2002). The expected and the unintended in working a democratic constitution. In Z. Hasan, E. Sridhran, & R. Sudarshan (Eds.), India’s living constitution: Ideas, practices, controversies (pp. 319–343). Permanent Black: Delhi.Google Scholar
  5. Ackerman, B. (1988). Neo-federalism. In J. Elster & R. Slagstad (Eds.), Constitutionalism and democracy: Studies in rationality and social change (pp. 153–193). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ackerman, B. (1989). Constitutional politics/constitutional law. Yale Law Journal, 99(3), 453–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ackerman, B. (1991). We the people: Foundations. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Ackerman, B. (1998). We the people: Transformations. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Baxi, U. (2000). Postcolonial legality. In H. Schwarz & S. Ray (Eds.), A companion to postcolonial studies (pp. 540–555). Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  10. Baxi, U. (2002). The (im)possibility of constitutional justice. In Z. Hasan, E. Sridharan, & R. Sudarshan (Eds.), India’s Living Constitution: Ideas, practices, controversies (pp. 31–63). Delhi: Permanent Black.Google Scholar
  11. Baxi, U. (2008). Outline of a ‘theory of practice’ of Indian constitutionalism. In R. Bhargava (Ed.), Politics and ethics of the Indian constitution (pp. 92–118). Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Baxi, U. (2013). Preliminary notes on transformative constitutionalism. In O. Vilhena, U. Baxi, & F. Viljoen (Eds.), Transformative constitutionalism: Comparing the apex courts of Brazil, India and South Africa (pp. 19–47). Johannesburg: Pretoria University Law Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bhargava, R. (2006). The distinctiveness of Indian secularism. In T. N. Srinivasan (Ed.), The future of secularism (pp. 20–53). New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bhargava, R. (Ed.). (2008). Politics and ethics of the Indian constitution. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bhargava, R. (2010). Indian secularism. An alternative, trans-cultural ideal. In R. Barghava (Ed.), The promise of India’s secular democracy (pp. 63–105). New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bhargava, R. (Ed.). (2013). Secular states and religious diversity. Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar
  17. Bhatia, U. (Ed.). (2018). The Indian constituent assembly: Deliberations on democracy. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Bhatia, G. (2019). The transformative constitution: A radical biography in nine acts. Noida: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  19. Böckenförde, E.-W. (1991). Die Entstehung des Staates als Vorgang der Säkularisation. In E.-W. Böckenförde (Ed.), Recht, Staat, Freiheit (pp. 92–114). Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  20. Chatterjee, P. (1993). The nation and its fragments: Colonial and postcolonial histories. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Choudhry, S., Khosla, M., & Mehta, P. B. (2016). Locating Indian constitutionalism. In S. Choudhry, M. Khosla, & P. B. Mehta (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of the Indian constitution (pp. 1–13). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Dahl, R. (1989). Democracy and its critics. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  23. De, R. (2016). Constitutional antecedents. In S. Choudhry, M. Khosla, & P. B. Mehta (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of the Indian constitution (pp. 17–37). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Elangovan, A. (2018). “We the People?”: Politics and the conundrum of framing a constitution on the eve of decolonisation. In U. Bhatia (Ed.), The Indian constituent assembly: Deliberations on democracy (pp. 10–37). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Elkins, Z., Ginsburg, T., & Melton, J. (Eds.). (2009). The endurance of national constitutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Elster, J. (1995). Forces and mechanisms in the constitution making process. Duke Law Journal, 45(2), 364–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Friedrich, C. J. (1950). Constitutional government and democracy (rev ed.). Boston: Ginn and Company.Google Scholar
  28. Guggenberger, B., Preuß, U. K., & Ullmann, W. (Eds.). (1991). Eine Verfassung in Deutschland. Manifest, Text, Plädoyers. München: Hanser.Google Scholar
  29. Habermas, J. (1996). Between facts and norms. Contributions to a discourse theory of law and democracy. Cambridge: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hailbronner, M. (2017). Transformative constitutionalism: Not only in the global south. American Journal of Comparative Law, 65(3), 527–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hamilton, A., Madison, J., & Jay, J. (1961). The federalist papers [1787/88]. New York: Mentor Books.Google Scholar
  32. Hayek, F. A. (1960). The constitution of liberty. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  33. Hegel, G. W. F. (1991). Elements of the philosophy of right (A. W. Wood, & H.-B. Nisbet (Eds.)). Cambridge: Cambridge UP.Google Scholar
  34. Gallie, W. B. (1955–1956). Essentially contested concepts. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 56, 167–198. New Series.Google Scholar
  35. Holmes, S. (1988). Precommitment and the paradox of democracy. In J. Elster & R. Slagstad (Eds.), Constitutionalism and democracy (pp. 195–240). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hume, D. (1963). Of the original contract. In D. Hume (Ed.), Essays: Moral, political, and literary (pp. 209–219). London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Jacobsohn, G. J. (2010). Constitutional identity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kapila, S. (2007). Self, spencer and swaraj: Nationalist thought and critiques of liberalism, 1890–1920. Modern Intellectual History, 4(1), 124–127.Google Scholar
  39. Kaviraj, S. (2003). A state of contradictions: The post-colonial state in India. In Q. Skinner & B. Strath (Eds.), State and citizens: History, theory, prospects (pp. 145–166). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Khilnani, S., Raghavan, V., & Thiruvengadam, K. (Eds.). (2013). Comparative constitutionalism in South Asia. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Langa, P. (2006). Transformative constitutionalism. Stellenbosch L R, 17(3), 351–360.Google Scholar
  42. Lal, V. (2013). Gandhi’s religion: Politics, faith, and hermeneutics. Journal of sociology and social anthropology, 4(1–2), 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lerner, H. (2016). The Indian founding: A comparative perspective. In S. Choudhry, M. Khosla, & P. B. Mehta (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of the Indian constitution (pp. 55–70). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Mbembe, A. (2001). On the postcolony. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  45. Mehta, P. B. (2002). The inner conflict of constitutionalism: Judicial review and the basic structure. In Z. Hasan, E. Sridharan, & R. Sudarshan (Eds.), India’s living constitution: Ideas, practices, controversies (pp. 179–206). Delhi: Permanent Black.Google Scholar
  46. Mehta, P. B. (2010a). What is constitutional morality? Seminar, 615, 17–22.Google Scholar
  47. Mehta, U. S. (2010b). Constitutionalism. In N. G. Jayal & P. B. Mehta (Eds.), The companion volume to politics in India (pp. 15–27). Delhi: OUP.Google Scholar
  48. Mouffe, C. (2000). The democratic paradox. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  49. Ocko, J., & Gilmartin, D. (2009). State, sovereignty, and the people: A comparison of the “Rule of Law” in China and India. The Journal of Asian Studies, 68(1), 55–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Paine, T. (1991). The rights of man: Being an answer to Mr. Burke’s attack on the French revolution. London: J.S. Jordon.Google Scholar
  51. Parekh, B. (2008). The constitution as a statement of Indian identity. In R. Bhargava (Ed.), Politics and ethics of the Indian constitution (pp. 43–58). New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Pitkin, H. F. (1987). The idea of a constitution. Journal of Legal Education, 37(2), 167–169.Google Scholar
  53. Quint, P. E. (1991). The imperfect union: Constitutional structures for German unification. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Rawls, J. (1993). Political liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Rousseau, J. J. (2000) [1762]. The social contract and other later political writings (V. Gourevitch (Ed.)). Cambridge: Cambridge UP.Google Scholar
  56. Rosenfeld, M. (2009). The identity of the constitutional subject: Selfhood, citizenship, culture, and community. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sartori, G. (1962). Constitutionalism: A preliminary discussion. American Political Science Review, 56(4), 853–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shani, O. (2018). How India became democratic: Citizenship and the making of universal franchise. Gurgaon: Penguin/Viking.Google Scholar
  59. Singh, U. K., & Roy, A. (2017). Ambedkar and the ideas of constitutionalism and constitutional democracy. Summerhill IIAS Review, 23(2), 3–11.Google Scholar
  60. Smith, A. D. (1983). Theories of nationalism. London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
  61. Wolin, S. (1989). The Presence of the past: Essays on the state and the constitution. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Silagi, M. (2011). The preamble of the German grundgesetz: Constitutional status and importance of preambles in German law. Acta Juridica Hungarica, 52(1), 54–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Swaminathan, S. (2013, January 26). India’s benign constitutional revolution. The Hindu. Retrieved January 27, 2013, from http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/indias-benign-constitutional-revolution/article4345212.ece.
  64. Tribe, L. H. (1987). The idea of the constitution: A metaphor-morphis. Journal of Legal Education, 37(2), 170–173.Google Scholar
  65. Thompson, E. P. (1975). Whigs and hunters: The origins of the black act. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  66. Tushnet, M. (2003). The new constitutional order. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Tushnet, M. (2010). How do constitutions constitute constitutional identity? International Journal of Constitutional Law, 8(3), 671–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tushnet, M. (2014). Comparative constitutional law. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  69. Vilhena, O., Baxi, U., & Viljoen, F. (Eds.). (2013). Transformative constitutionalism: Comparing the apex courts of Brazil, India and South Africa. Johannesburg: Pretoria University Law Press.Google Scholar
  70. Zippelius, R. (1994). Kleine deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte. Vom frühen Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart. München: Beck.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Political Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Institute of Political Science and SociologyJulius-Maximilians-UniversityWürzburgGermany

Personalised recommendations