Content Based Routing Algorithm to Improve QoS in IoMT Networks

Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 1192)


The IoT combines the MANETs and WSNs, as it includes the nodes which are stationary as well as dynamic in nature. The nodes in IoT network may comprise of vehicles, smart devices, sensors, net- works, other smart objects etc. This intercommunication between the things also brings various routing challenges which may be posed during the transmission of data. The data to be transmitted may not always be scalar as in WSN but may be audio, video, image, text or multimedia as in WMSN (Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network). The successor of WSN is WMSN and the transmission of multimedia content in IoT leads to the emergence of IoMT (Internet of Multimedia Things) networks. QoS is extremely important during the transmission and the quality of the path is calculated on the basis of noise on the channel. The congestion has always been considered as the main cause of the packet loss and delay in the transmission. The paper proposes the algorithm, CARA-IoT which finds the reliable intelligent path which is also content aware. The path is established using ACO (AntColony Optimization) approach, content is checked and suitability of the routing path is confirmed. And finally, the best intelligent reliable routing path is chosen, firstly based on the noise present on the channel and secondly on the basis of the content to be communicated.


WMSN IoMT IoT QoS SNR Content aware 


  1. 1.
    Abazeed, M., Faisal, N., Zubair, S., Ali, A.: Routing protocols for wireless multimedia sensor network: a survey. J. Sens. 2013, 1–11 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kalaivani, P., Sathya, G., Senthilnathan, N.: QoS parameters estimation in MANET using position based opportunistic routing protocol. Am. J. Comput. Sci. Eng. Surv. 3(1), 21–27 (2015)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zwyssig, E., Renals, S., Lincoln, M.: On the effect of SNR and superdirective beamforming in speaker diarisation in meetings. In: 2012 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), pp. 4177–4180 (2012)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Palaniappan, S., Chellan, K.: Energy-efficient stable routing using QoS monitoringagents in MANET. EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw. 1(3), 13 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cevik, T., Gunagwera, A., Cevik, N.: A survey of multimedia streaming in wireless sensor networks: progress, issues and design challenges. Int. J. Comput. Netw. Commun. 7, 95–114 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Singh, R., Verma, A.K.: Efficient image transfer over WSN using cross layer architecture. Optik 130, 494 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kandris, D., Tsagkaropoulos, M., Politis, I., Tzes, A., Kotsopoulos, S.: Energy efficient and perceived QoS aware video routing over wireless multimedia sensor networks. Ad Hoc Netw. 9(4), 591–607 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hasan, M.Z., Al-Rizzo, H., Al-Turjman, F.: A survey on multipath routing protocols for QoS assurances in real-time wireless multimedia sensor networks. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 19(3), 1424–1456 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Han, Y., Chen, Y., Wang, B., Liu, K.R.: Enabling heterogeneous connectivity in Internet of Things: a time-reversal approach. IEEE Internet of Things J. 3(6), 1036–1047 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Almalkawi, I.T., Guerrero Zapata, M., Al-Karaki, J.N., Morillo-Pozo, J.: Wireless multimedia sensor networks: current trends and future directions. Sensors 10(7), 6662–6717 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Usman, M., Yang, N., Jan, M.A., He, X., Xu, M., Lam, K.-M.: A joint framework for QoS and QoE for video transmission over wireless multimedia sensor networks. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 8, 746–759 (2017)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen, Y., Farley, T.R., Ye, N.: QoS requirements of network applications on the internet. Inf. Knowl. Syst. Manage. 4, 55–76 (2004)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Agnihotri, S., Ramkumar, K.R.: A survey and comparative analysis of the various routing protocols of Internet of Things. Int. J. Pervasive Comput. Commun. 13(3), 264–281 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Agnihotri, S., Ramkumar, K.R.: An enhanced routing algorithm for Internet of Things that resolves heterogeneity issues. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference, BVICAM, INDIACom 2019, New Delhi, pp. 1274–1279. IEEE (2019)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    He, T., John, A., Chenyang, L., Abdelzaher, T.: SPEED: A Real-Time Routing Protocol for Sensor Networks. Virginia University Charlottesville Department of Computer Science, Charlottesville (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Information TechnologyGGDSD CollegeChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Chitkara University Institute of Engineering and TechnologyChitkara UniversityPunjabIndia

Personalised recommendations