Facile Fabrication of 1-D Hierarchical TiO2 Nanomorphology and Its Application in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

  • Asha Anish MadhavanEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Energy book series (SPE)


One-dimensional nanofibers fabricated by the process of electrospinning have found engaging applications in the field of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) due to semi-directed electron transport. Current research accounts for the development of conductive mats made from nanofibers, which is achieved through the electrospinning of TiO2–ZnO composites and by using polyvinylpyrrolidine as a carrier solution. This fiber was annealed at 450 °C to attain a continuous network of conducting nanofibers. ZnO from the composite was selectively etched to fabricate high surface area anisotropic TiO2 hierarchical fiber. Morphological and phase analysis conducted by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the formation of anatase phase and 1-D hierarchical morphology of TiO2. These structures were employed as photoanodes in DSSC, which had shown superior photoconversion efficiency.


TiO2 ZnO Electrospinning Hydrothermal Photoanode DSSC 



The author is grateful to Dr. Shanti Nair, Dean and Management of Amrita Center for Nano sciences, Kochi, for providing infrastructure and characterization facilities for conducting the research. Author would also like to thank Dr. A Sreekumaran Nair, MRF Limited, Chennai, for his guidance and other support for conducting the research.


  1. 1.
    R. Jose, V. Thavasi, S. Ramakrishna, Metal oxides for dye-sensitized solar cells. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92, 289 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. Schmidt-Mende, S.M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, Efficiency improvement in solid state-dye-sensitized photovoltaics with an amphiliphilic Ruthenium -dye. Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 013504 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.L. Schmidt, U. Bach, B.R. Humphry, T. Horiuchi, H. Miura, S. Ito, S. Uchida, M. Grätzel, Organic dye for highly efficient solid state DSSC. Adv. Mater. 17, 813 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Kim, J.K. Lee, S.O. Kang, J. Ko, J.-H. Yum, S. Fantacci, F. De Angelis, D. Di Censo, M.K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, Molecular engineering of organic sensitizers for solar cell applications. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 16701 (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Zukalová, A. Zukal, L. Kavan, M.K. Nazeeruddin, P. Liska, M. Grätzel, Organized mesoporous TiO2 films exhibiting greatly enhanced performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. Nano Lett. 5(9), 1789 (2005).
  6. 6.
    H. Yu, S. Zhang, H. Zhao, G. Will, P. Liu, An efficient and low-cost TiO2 compact layer for performance improvement of dye-sensitized solar cells. Electrochim. Acta 54(4), 1319 (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R.Y. Ogura, S. Nakane, M. Morooka, M. Orihashi, Y. Suzuki, K. Noda, High-performance dye-sensitized solar cell with a multiple dye system Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 073308 (2009)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. Hu, S. Dai, J. Weng, S. Xiao, Y. Sui, Y. Huang, S. Chen, F. Kong, X. Pan, L. Liang, K. Wang, Microstructure design of Nanoporous TiO2 Photoelectrodes for Dye-Sensitized solar cell modules. J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 358 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. Berger, T. Lana-Villarreal, D. Monllor-Satoca, R. Gomez, In situ infrared study of the adsorption and surface acid − base properties of the Anions of Dicarboxylic acids at Gold Single Crystal and thin-film electrodes. J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 9936 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D.D. Vuong, D.T.N. Tram, P.Q. Pho, N.D. Chienin, Phys. Eng. New Mater. 95–102Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Z. Miao, D. Xu, J. Ouyang, G. Guo, X. Zhao, Y. Tang, Electrochemically induced Sol − Gel preparation of single-crystalline TiO2 nanowires. Nano Lett. 2, 717 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J.J. Wu, C.J. Yu, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 3377 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Y.W. Jun, M.F. Casula, J.H. Sim, S.Y. Kim, J. Cheon, A.P. Alivisatos, Surfactant-assisted elimination of a high energy facet as a means of controlling the shapes of TiO2 nanocrystals. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 15981 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. Li, Y. Xia, One-dimensional nanostructures: synthesis, characterization, and applications. Nano Lett. 3, 555 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J.B. Baxter, E.S. Aydil, Dye-sensitized solar cells based on semiconductor morphologies with ZnO nanowires Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 607 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    V.V. Kislyuk, O.P. Dimitriev, Nanorods and nanotubes for solar cells. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8, 131 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Kumar, R. Jose, K. Fujihara, J. Wang, S. Ramakrishna, Structural and optical properties of electrospun TiO2 nanofibers. Chem. Mater. 19, 6536 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Hagfeldt, G. Boschloo, L. Sun, L. Kloo, H. Pettersson, Chem. Rev. 110, 6595 (2010)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    G.S. Anjusree, A. Sreekumaran Nair, S.V. Nair, S. Vadukumpully, One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2/graphene nanocomposites for enhanced visible photocatalysis and photovoltaics. RSC Adv. (2013)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    K. Sujith, A.M. Asha, P. Anjali, N. Sivakumar, K.R.V. Subramanian, S.V. Nair, A. Balakrishnan, Fabrication of highly porous conducting PANI-C composite fiber mats via electrospinning. Mater. Lett. 67, 376 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A.A. Madhavan, A. Mohandas, A. Licciulli, K.P. Sanosh, P. Praveen, R. Jayakumar, S.V. Nair, A.S. Nair, A. Balakrishnan, Electrospun continuous nanofibers based on a TiO2–ZnO-graphene composite, RSC Adv. 3, 25312 (2013)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Asha, K. Sujith, P. Anjali, N. Sivakumar, K.R.V. Subramanian, S.V. Nair, A. Balakrishnan, Effect of surface nanomorphology and interfacial galvanic coupling of PEDOT-Titanium counter electrodes on the stability of dye-sensitized solar cell. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12, 1 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. Chen, H. Qu, J. Zhu, Z. Luo, A. Khasanov, A.S. Kucknoor, N. Haldolaarachchige, D.P. Young, S. Wei, Z. Guo, Polymer, 53, 4501 (2012)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    S.Y. Huang, G. Schlichthorl, A.J. Nozik, M. Grätzel, A.J. Frank, Charge recombination in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells, J. Phys. Chem. B, 101, 2576 (1997)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    H.B. Choi, S.O.J.J. Ko, G.H. Gao, H.S. Kang, M.S. Kang, M.K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, Angew. Chem, 121, 6052 (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Amity University DubaiDubaiUAE

Personalised recommendations